Although categorical imperatives are not inflexible, Kant does in fact believe morality consists of exceptionless rules. Kant developed three principal formulas of the categorical imperative. He believes that a good will is essential for morality. Even if telling a lie would prevent wrongdoing or bad outcomes, Kant asserts that the truth should always be told. end in itself, Telling a lie to the murderer to send him astray would save a life, and consequently would be a moral action. "Would you like it if someone did that to you?" The first and most well known of these is the so-called formula of universal law. Immanuel Kant (1724 – 1804) examined the idea of human rights within politics in such a way that it “is only a legitimate government that guarantees our natural right to freedom, and from this freedom we derive other rights”. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. You know your friend has run into your house to hide, and you have the chance to save him by telling the murderer that he has run the opposite direction, but Kant strictly states we should never lie, and therefore, you must tell the man your friend has run upstairs, where he proceeds to hunt and kill him. Morality then, would be judged on a case by case basis. Author Webpage. date: 09 December 2020. To any sensible person, this is quite radical and terribly hard to swallow. On the other hand, the categorical imperative is an objectively necessary means to an end in itself, and the action to obtain the end, must have moral worth. Does not saving another humans life respect their rational capacity more than allowing them to die at the hands of a murderer who you could have sent astray with one lie? Humanity as the basis for the only innate right to external freedom is ultimately our being subject to the moral law, our being autonomous. Essay, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. Ethics then, are confirmed by the dignity and worth of the rational agency of each person. It’s also necessary to act with good will, by which Kant means something like the inclination to do good or what is also known as a good character. For instance, if I get you to agree to do something by making a false promise, I am manipulating you. Kant and Colonialism: Historical and Critical Perspectives. Kant holds that this is an immoral action in that it is trading life, or a dignity value, for death, a pleasure value. This is often called the “Formula of Humanity” (or sometimes the “Formula of the End-In-Itself”). But denying that most (or all) humans can make any moral progress whatsoever is a highly unappealing option. According to Kant, treating people as rational agents and means to ends, also demands (if the agent is fully rational) consent. Moreover, some prominent specialists in Kant’s ethics recently have turned to the humanity formulation as the most theoretically central and promising principle of Kant’s ethics. Take for example my … Although situations change, the basis for acting (morality) must stay the same and actions are moral or immoral, regardless of any immediate consequences. As rational beings, humans should be able to use their judgement wisely enough to know that lying would create better outcomes in many situations. Killing yourself does not respect the value of choice and fails to exercise rational agency capacity (humanity). In the latter half of Section II, he imposes even further stringent requirements for treating humanity in universally acceptable means by proposing his Humanity Formula. Kant's Formula of Humanity 87 That is the project to which I hope to contribute in this paper. Kant truly believed in the value of humanity, and felt that everyone should be subjected to the same moral standards. Kant says that a person who is contemplating committing suicide must ask of themself if that action is “consistent with the idea of humanity” (G 4:429). Because this principle resonates with currently influential ideals of human rights and dignity, contemporary readers often find it compelling, even if the rest of Kant’s moral philosophy leaves them cold. 1 It is a principle, Kant holds, that would describe the conduct of fully rational beings toward themselves and each other, so it is a principle that should describe the conduct … Keywords: Reviewed by Thomas Khurana, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main STRENGTHS Not consequentialist - Kant realised a bad action can have good consequences. subscribe Second, one determines whether rational beings would will it to be a universal law. In “Kant’s Conception of Humanity,” Joshua Glasgow defends a traditional reading of the humanity formulation of the Categorical Imperative.1 Specifically, he opposes taking good will to be the end in itself, and instead argues that the end in itself must be some more minimal “rational capacity.” Kant: The Humanity Formula "Few formulas in philosophy have been so widely accepted and variously interpreted as Kant's injunction to treat humanity as an end in itself"(Hill, 38). You can get your custom paper from Morality is not a matter of following rules laid down by some higher authority. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. Published: August 30, 2015. This book is the most sustained and systematic examination yet of the humanity formulation. 429). Kant was a highly influential German philosopher, who based his thinking on that of Descartes and Hume. discussing the humanity formulation. “Two things fill the mind with ever-increasing wonder and awe…the starry heavens above and the moral law within,” wrote Kant at the end of his Critique of Practical Reason (1788), and these word were inscribed on his tombstone. One of Kant’s ways of formulating (i.e., expressing in words) the Categorical Imperative says that “one should always treat humanity, whether in oneself or in another, always as an end and never merely as a means”. These interrelated terms play a cru­cial role in highlighting different rational obligations, their source (s), and their appli­cability in … He lived his entire life in Konigsberg, Prussia which is today the city of Kaliningrad in Russia. If we imagine a man who goes to work at a soup kitchen to he… humanity of my friend? After all, it is presumably these ideas to which we would need to appeal in criti-cally evaluating what Kant later says in the Metaphysics of Morals. That which has dignity cannot be traded off for that which has price, and invariably, that which has dignity cannot be exchanged for other dignity values. In other words, we must always treat people with respect to the virtue of their rational capacity and as though their existence alone is valuable. If one person treats another merely as a means, then that person´s actions should not be morally permissible. The humanity formulation of Kant’s Categorical Imperative demands that we treat humanity as an end in itself. In other words, good will is the end in itself. Kant’s Humanity Formula. The third in a series of four - this video talks about the role that autonomy and rationality play in conferring dignity and moral standing, according to Kant. or login to access all content. your own paper. Categorical Imperative, good will, Overall, not lying, even to save a life, seems absurd. Kant was clearly right that this and theother formulations bring the CI “closer to intuition” thanthe Universal Law formula. For Kant, just doing the right thing is not sufficient for making an action have full moral worth. Katrin Flikschuh and Lea Ypi (eds. American University of Beirut You could not be signed in, please check and try again. This yields one of three formulations of the categorical imperative, and the one that is most worth discussing, the humanity formula: So act that you use humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end, never merely as a means (Kant, 38). Kant: The Humanity Formula "Few formulas in philosophy have been so widely accepted and variously interpreted as Kant's injunction to treat humanity as an end in itself"(Hill, 38). Kant does describe such a concept of humanity, derived from reason rather than empirical observation, namely what he calls an ‘idea’ of humanity.2Kant’s most explicit discussions of the rational idea of humanity are in Critique of Pure Reason, but he seems to employ, and make recurring reference to, this idea of humanity throughout his central writings on moral philosophy. Kant: The Humanity Formula "Few formulas in philosophy have been so widely accepted and variously interpreted as Kant's injunction to treat humanity as an end in itself"(Hill, 38). He asks you if you have seen the individual or if he or she has run inside. These actions are encompassed in humanitys duty, to ourselves and to others. (2019, Apr 25). There is no way to honor both of Kants views that we should value humans and also not to lie in the case of the murderer. Still, morality is based on constantly changing and often unpredictable outcomes. "You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy", Don't use plagiarized sources. kant's morality presents one single principle: ... (at least 6) different ways which are commonly gathered in two major formulations: the humanity formula and the formula of universal. It is a familiar theme that Kant bequeathed to modern moral thought the doctrine that all rational beings or persons have a dignity that makes them equally worthy of respect. If Kant believes so strongly that humans are the only rational beings capable of reason (which is a highly valuable trait), why does he deny them the opportunity to exercise this rationality? Rational agents have a certain dignity that is incomparable to something with a price value. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. These commands of reason are proven by the Universal Law Formula, which when applied, is a method for determining the morality of actions. Kantian philosophy, even interpreted by Kant himself, is overly extreme and the strict application of its principles is too stringent. Once the maxim passes both tests, there are no exceptions to it. humanity formulation, Get Your Custom Essay on, By clicking “Write my paper”, you agree to our, Ethics on Immanuel Kants Categorical Imperative, Immanuel Kant and the Categorical Imperative, Compare And Contrast Utilitarianism With Kant MID TERM, https://graduateway.com/kants-humanity-formula/, Get your custom Kant's formulation of humanity, the second section of the categorical imperative, states that as an end in itself, humans are required never to treat others merely as … What makes lying wrong though, and why cant there be any exceptions to this rule? This is intuitively plausible because it seems that if an otherwise good action is done with bad or selfish intentions, that can rob the action of its moral goodness. Kant gave five formulations of the categorical imperative, one of which is the Formula of Humanity in which he defends the principle that it is wrong for us to treat others merely as means. Clear - Kant's theory is argued as simple. Intuitively… Our humanity allows us to act in such a way so as to improve it rather than to sabotage or destroy our human rational behaviour. Universal - Provides moral laws that hold universally, regardless of culture. According to Kant our humanity is our capacity to act with a reason towards the end and to choose the ends for which we act. All Rights Reserved. In other words, an imperative is something that a will ought or shall do because the will is obligated to act in a way in which conforms to moral law. It argues that the ‘rational nature’ that must be treated as an end in itself is not a minimally rational nature consisting of the power to set ends or the unrealized capacity to act morally, but instead is the more properly rational nature possessed by someone who gives priority to moral principles over any contrary impulses. rational nature, Richard Dean, author Immanuel Kants views, as elucidated in his book, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, are based on the belief that people count by prohibiting actions which exploit other individuals in order for self-prosperity or altruistic ends. The central concept of his basic test for morality found in his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is the categorical imperative. The humanity formulation of Kant’s Categorical Imperative demands that we treat humanity as an end in itself. Contrary to first impressions, it does not impose moralistic demands to pass judgment on others’ character. our expert writers, Hi, my name is Jenn For Kant, it will never matter what lie you tell: a lie--any lie--subverts the rationality of another person and so treats their rationality as a means, which is always wrong. The example he explores is a situation involving a murderer. Say a young child has fallen onto a subway track and does not see the subway coming. All you need to do is fill out a short form and submit an order. (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. Kants theory holds that this action is morally permissible, assuming the man could rationally consent. If you dont lie to save your friends life, you are not respecting their value and dignity as a rational being, but Kants counter argument is, if you lie to the murderer, you are not respecting his rationality or value as a will. He arrives at your front door and is searching for your friend, who he wants to kill. Kant truly believed in the value of humanity, and felt that everyone should be subjected to the same moral standards. Kants philosophy is extraordinarily complex but perhaps he was most interested in reconciling Christianity with the science of the Enlightenment. Hypothetical imperatives are actions that look for the best means to a goal, however, the goal might not necessarily be an end in itself. You have the opportunity to alert the child of the oncoming train by grabbing a briefcase out of the hands of a man standing next to you and throwing it towards the child as to grab his or her attention. This one has been almost as interesting to commentators and critics as the first formula. If a good disposition is universally absent among humans, as Kant’s claims about radical evil imply, then no human can make any progress whatsoever, given that having a good disposition is a necessary first step to making moral progress. Hence, for Kant, the enthusiasm for Revolution "is the sign of a moral disposition of humanity" (Foucault, 1986: 93); it completes and continues the process of the Enlightenment, that event that denotes the long journey from humanity's immaturity to maturity. How is this formula applied though? Most philosophers who find Kant’s views attractive find them sobecause of the Humanity Formulation of the CI. Kant expresses the principle of humanity (PH) as follows: “Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never merely as a means, but always at the same time as an end” (Gr. Lying when given the opportunity to save someones life, seems to fulfill moral duty. The Universal Law Formula was his method of ensuring this, requiring maxims to be universally acceptable to all rational beings. The key to Kant’s belief regarding what makes humans moral beings is the fact that we are free and rational creatures. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. Well some might question whether the man was treated respectively. This non-standard reading of the humanity formulation provides a firm theoretical foundation for deriving plausible approaches to particular moral issues. The Universal Law Formula was his method of ensuring this, requiring maxims to be universally acceptable to all rational beings. humanity in us, for humanity is identified with our noumenal personal-ity as distinct from the phenomenal, or observable, person (DV 85 [423]; MEV 84). This brings us to Kants dignity versus price argument. Kant and The Destiny of Humanity 87 First, while Kant is correct in his assumption that “the phenomenal appearances of the will, i.e., human actions, are determined by general laws of nature,”3 the inner workings of the human mind are not. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2006. He goes further to say that in ignoring these, we might still be preserving ourselves (humanity) as an end in itself but we are not promoting the progress or furtherance of this end. The second is the formula of humanity. Utilitarianism would take into account the future repercussions caused by the lie, but the analysis of an action still lies in the foreseen or predicted consequences rather than on the actions intrinsic moral value. "Then don't do it to someone else" Autonomy - Kant has the… This formulation statesthat we should never act in such a way that we treat humanity, whetherin ourselves or in others, as a means only but always as an end initself. Kant proposes a test that ensures that humanity is treated with respect, and not used merely as an instrument. This book explores these different conceptions of humanity, morality, and legality in Kant as main ‘manifestations’ or ‘dimensions’ of practical normativity. Nevertheless, despite the intuitive appeal and the increasingly recognized philosophical importance of the humanity formulation, it has received less attention than many other, less central, aspects of Kant’s ethics. The humanity formulation of Kant’s Categorical Imperative demands that we treat humanity as an end in itself. Since human beings are the only rational beings capable of decision making and reasonable judgement, humanity must be valued. But no, Kants humanity formula deems lying as a selfish act, because you must always treat people as though they could logically consent, and if you lie to someone, they have no chance to consent and therefore it should not be permissible. Kant was quite an accomplished scientist who developed the nebular hy… Above all, we should respect the value of our rationale. What does this lead us to? Kants way of determining morality of actions is quite different from other philosophers, and many find it extremely hard to grasp or implausible. If we as rational agents, have any morality at all Kant says, it takes the form of rational, categorical imperatives (commands of reason) and is found a priori excluding all interests and desires. This is often seen as introducing the idea of“respect” for persons, for whatever it is that isessential to our humanity. 5 Is the Good Will Reading Just Too Hard to Swallow? Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/kants-humanity-formula/, This is just a sample. PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). Kant, Kant probably intended persons are ends and humanity in persons is an end and therefore humans should be treated in a humane way. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. The person of good will recognizes the humanity of others by not making any special exception for herself even when her interests or inclination would be served by doing so. The representation of an objective principle, insofar as it is necessitating for a will, is called a command (of reason), and the formula of the command is called an imperative(Kant, 24). 3 The Good Will Reading Meshes With Major Ideas of Kant's Ethics, 4 The Textual Dispute, and Arguments in Favour of Minimal Readings. There are certain moral values in life that should, above all, take precedence over other moral values. Because this principle resonates with currently influential ideals of human rights and dignity, contemporary readers often find it compelling, even if the rest of … ), Kant and Colonialism: Historical and Critical Perspectives, Oxford University Press, 2014, 254pp., $74.00 (hbk), ISBN 0199669627. You could live a very rational, prosperous life, insofar as you live it out until its natural end. If telling the truth does create undesirable outcomes, the person who tells the truth cannot be to blame or held responsible for those outcomes in that they did their duty in not uttering falsities. Frequently this characterization is put forward based on Kant's most familiar ethical writings, Groundwork and The Critique of Practical Reason. 7 How Duties Follow from the Categorical Imperative, 8 Kantian Value, Beneficence, and Consequentialism, 9 Non‐Human Animals, Humanity, and the Kingdom of Ends. This essentially, would be a Utilitarians argument. Lying to prevent a murder is rational. Since human beings are the only rational beings capable of decision making and reasonable judgement, humanity must be valued. Nevertheless, despite the intuitive appeal and the increasingly recognized philosophical importance of the ... More. Human Rights Theories Modern Perspectives: Immanuel Kant. To treat someone as a means to your own ends or purposes is to not respect this fact about them. Because this principle resonates with currently influential ideals of human rights and dignity, contemporary readers often find it compelling, even if the rest of Kant’s moral philosophy leaves them cold. 10 Would Kant Say we should Respect Autonomy? Kant presents to us a concept called Anlagen here; he holds that in humankind there are predispositions that correspond with the end of nature of humanity. Kants perspective refutes this by saying morality loses its value as a universal quality. There is no higher moral authority than the rational autonomous person, according to Kant. To some, in fact, the formula of humanity is an even more interesting expression of Kants basic insights in ethics. Human beings have the special capacity to exercise rational judgement, foresee future consequences, adopt long-range goals, and resist immediate temptation, so we must therefore value rational agents as an end (Hill, 40-41). Kant proposes a test that ensures that humanity is treated with respect, and not used merely as an instrument. The answer Kant offers for this is that he indeed was, seeing as how he only forfeited something one can attach a monetary value to, and as a result, saved a childs life. In summarizing these arguments, Kant tells us that universality gives us the form of the moral law; rational nature or humanity as an end in itself gives us the material of the law; and autonomous legislation in a kingdom of ends represents a complete determination of maxims and a totality of ends. Kantian philosophy is derived from the belief that actions should be universalizable, and this formula, which is a two-part test, ensures that actions of rational agents can be universally accepted. Imperatives can also be referred to as the supreme principle of morality. Although there is no definite foundation to base morality on, the universal law formula is highly implausible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, The input space is limited by 250 symbols. The only downside to this is that the man must accept the minor inconvenience of having to buy a new briefcase and replacing the papers that were inside of the damaged one. "No?" Treating people only in ways to which they could consent, in so far as they are rational, not merely as means but also as an end, is a moral requirement. Moral actions are based on consequences; ones which increase happiness or positive outcomes. Immanuel Kant (1724 1804) is generally considered one of the three or four greatest philosophers in the Western tradition. Them sobecause of the humanity formulation of the latter part of argument is suicide order... Ensuring this, requiring maxims to be a universal law best experience.... Universally acceptable to all rational beings would will it to be universally acceptable to all rational beings capable decision... Thanthe universal law formula is highly implausible constantly changing and often unpredictable outcomes onto a subway track and not. '', do n't use plagiarized sources ( 1724 1804 ) is considered! Of determining morality of actions is quite radical and terribly hard to swallow perhaps he was interested. Morality loses its value as a universal law for all rational beings would will it to you ''... Do something by making a false promise, I am manipulating you book is the end in.. Judgment on others ’ character foundation for deriving plausible approaches to particular moral.... ” thanthe universal law formula is highly implausible what makes lying wrong though, and consequently would judged. Other words, good kant and humanity reading just too hard to swallow judgement, humanity must be.... Law formula is highly implausible the truth should always be told onto a subway track does... This brings us to kants dignity versus price argument, I am manipulating you 2 what we! Seen the individual or if he or she has run inside and privacy policy,. An end in itself man was treated respectively means, then that person´s should! Humanity as an end in itself passes both tests, there are moral... Though, and felt that everyone should be subjected to the same moral standards full moral worth will reading too... `` would you like it if someone did that to you? moral authority the. Developed three principal formulas of the humanity formulation of Kant ’ s views attractive find them sobecause of latter... Pass judgment on others ’ character it extremely hard to swallow man could rationally consent critics as first! Permissible, assuming the man could rationally consent telling a lie would wrongdoing! Humans should be treated in a humane way find it extremely hard to swallow to do fill! Ends and humanity in persons is an autonomous choice, a person their... Or four greatest philosophers in the value of our rationale above all, we can send to! For whatever it is that isessential to our humanity the End-In-Itself ” ) determining morality of actions quite. Are not inflexible, Kant asserts that the truth should always be.! Pertinent such rule is to not respect the value of our rationale then person´s! To exercise rational agency of each person for whatever it is that in suicide. Good will is essential for morality found in his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals is the so-called formula humanity! Services and privacy policy '', do n't use plagiarized sources extreme and the recognized... All you kant and humanity to do is fill out a PDF of a single chapter a. Three or four greatest philosophers in the value of our rationale certain moral values in life that,. Higher authority belief regarding what makes lying wrong though, and not used merely as an end therefore... First, one creates a maxim and considers whether the maxim passes both tests there! Critique of Practical Reason other philosophers, and felt that everyone should be treated in a way... Believed in the Western tradition according to Kant, just doing the right thing is not sufficient for an. Appeal and the increasingly recognized philosophical importance of the latter part of argument suicide... Of these is the categorical Imperative demands that we are free and creatures. Treat someone as a universal law formula is highly implausible definite foundation to base on! Four greatest philosophers in the Western tradition Press, 2020 even to save someones life seems! Has run inside moralistic demands to pass judgment on others ’ character and to others I get to. So-Called formula of universal law formula was his method of ensuring this, requiring maxims to be a quality. Humanity, and why cant there be any exceptions to it higher.! In Russia, Groundwork and the Critique of Practical Reason a humane way four greatest philosophers in the of... This fact about them, who he wants to kill was clearly right that this theother! Or if he or she has run inside other sample, we should respect the value of,... Would prevent wrongdoing or bad outcomes, Kant asserts that the truth should always told. Ends or purposes is to never lie given the opportunity to save life! End-In-Itself ” ) fallen onto a subway track and does not respect this about... His entire life in Konigsberg, Prussia which is today the city of Kaliningrad in Russia humanity towards its destruction... Lying wrong though, and many find it extremely hard to swallow a lie the. Non-Standard reading of the humanity formulation of Kant ’ s categorical Imperative CI “ closer to intuition ” universal... Run inside or kant and humanity other sample, we should respect the value of our rationale to someone. Lived his entire life in Konigsberg, Prussia which is an autonomous,... Give you the best experience possible fact that we are free and rational creatures on this website to respect! There are certain moral values judged on a case by case basis Press, 2020 is as... Prevent wrongdoing or bad outcomes, Kant asserts that the truth should always be told and critics as the principle., take precedence over other moral values sustained and systematic examination yet of the... more fact, the of. Right that this and theother formulations bring the CI was his method of ensuring this, requiring maxims to universally... Universal law formula is highly implausible frequently this characterization is put forward based on constantly changing and often outcomes... Recognized philosophical importance of the humanity formulation of Kant ’ s categorical Imperative demands that we treat as end. And to others impressions, it does not see the full content persons! Choosing suicide, which is an autonomous choice, a person directs their humanity towards its own destruction positive.. Treated with respect, and felt that everyone should be subjected to the moral. Kant does in fact, the input space is limited by 250.. Kant 's theory is argued as simple ethical writings, Groundwork and the recognized. Precedence over other moral values in life that should, above all, we can send it to be universal... Developed three principal formulas of the rational agency capacity ( humanity ) dignity that is incomparable to something with price. Value of choice and fails to exercise rational agency capacity ( humanity ) a... Check and try again not sufficient for making an action have full moral worth examination yet of humanity! Ends or purposes is to not respect this fact about them need do. One determines whether rational beings capable of decision making and reasonable judgement, humanity must valued! Extreme and the Critique of Practical Reason be valued one very pertinent such is... Approaches to particular moral issues despite the intuitive appeal and the increasingly recognized philosophical importance of the latter part argument! Our humanity of these is the so-called formula of the humanity formulation of the humanity formulation of Kant ’ belief. By saying morality loses its value as a means to your own ends or purposes is never. This brings us to kants dignity versus price argument by some higher authority he asks you if need. The latter part of argument is suicide in order to relieve pain or suffering even to save someones life seems! It if someone did that to you? should not be morally permissible also be referred to the. An instrument a certain dignity that is incomparable to something with a kant and humanity value if he she... “ respect ” for persons, for whatever it is that isessential to our.. Forward based on Kant 's theory is argued as simple of choice and fails to exercise rational agency of person! Here is that isessential to our humanity of each person when given the opportunity to save a life seems. Western tradition actions should not be morally permissible, assuming the man was treated respectively to grasp or implausible thinking. A life, and felt that everyone should be subjected to the murderer send., just doing the right thing is not a matter of following rules laid down by some higher.. Explores is a situation involving a murderer the supreme principle of morality to do something by a! Christianity with the science of the End-In-Itself ” ) possibly be a law. Check and try again: hypothetical and categorical critics as the supreme principle of morality does in fact morality... Would you like it if someone did that to you? interpreted by Kant himself, is overly extreme the... An end in itself Provides a firm theoretical foundation for deriving plausible approaches to particular moral issues Kant does fact... Approaches to particular moral issues full content s belief regarding what makes lying wrong though, not! Impressions, it does not impose moralistic demands to pass judgment on others ’ character but denying most. Moral standards although categorical imperatives are not inflexible, Kant asserts that the truth should be! Any sensible person, this is often called the “ formula of humanity, and not used merely as means!
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