When writing an essay it is often necessary to refer to outside sources for more information. It's one trick that teachers use to make sure you actually use some references when you write a paper, instead of simply offering a list of your opinions. For a discussion of why to cite sources, see Ethical Use of Sources. The sky is blue, college is hard, student loan debt is a problem – all of these things are common knowledge. How to Cite a Book (Title, not chapter) in APA Format. You can seek the advice of your instructor, a writing tutor, or a librarian. If you're not really certain about something being common knowledge, you could give it the little sister test. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Here's a list of situations when your teacher would expect a citation: You make a specific claim that could be challenged--like London is the foggiest city in the world. Explanation; When you paraphrase or summarize ideas, interpretations, or conclusions that you find in a source. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, More Examples of Common Knowledge or Well-Known Facts, Tips for Typing an Academic Paper on a Computer, Proofreaders' and Teachers' Correction Marks, 4 Tips for Using Textual Evidence for Short Stories, M.Ed., Education Administration, University of Georgia, B.A., History, Armstrong State University. For example: According to Felix (2005) 98% of dog owners think cats to be supercilious creatures. First of all, summarizing and paraphrasing are two related practices but they are not the same. When to Cite a Source You should use evidence (citations) any time you make a claim that is not based on a well-known fact or common knowledge. However, if you create a graph or chart out of information you gathered from another source, you must cite the source from which you extracted the data. That information is owned by the author. Paraphrase someone’s ideas. You can never get into hot water if you cite a source when you don't have to. Common knowledge is basically a fact that practically everyone knows, like the fact that George Washington was a U.S. president. If you get an answer, it could be common knowledge! This is the easiest rule to understand. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. Eating while driving is more dangerous than talking on the cell phone while driving. Plot of the subject of the article: If the subject of the article is a book or film or other artistic work, it is unnecessary to cite a source in describing events or other details. In the first part, each section of text that is either based on, or quoted from, an outside source is marked as such with an inline citation. What is common knowledge is sometimes difficult to discern. As you learned in The Purpose of Academic Argument , research involves forming opinions and insights around what you learn. Not doing so would mean that you are letting your reader believe these words are your own and represent your own effort. Cite when you are directly quoting. The information you share when you cite a source is called a citation, or sometimes a reference. Mention someone’s ideas. For example, the following sentence puts information about the author and work before the quotation: You may also want to describe the author(… Too many citations will give your teacher the impression that you are attempting to stretch your paper to a certain word count! Using another person’s ideas without crediting them equates to plagiarism 2. The only risk in doing this is littering your paper with unnecessary citations that will drive your teacher crazy. The Giving Tree, Harper & Row, 1964. A good rule of thumb for any writer is to go ahead and use a citation when you're not certain whether or not the citation is necessary. If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. Examples of information that would not need to be cited include: Some quick facts, such as statistics, are trickier. When you ask the assistance of experts, you won’t worry about this question because you’ll receive a ready paper, which comprises all necessary elements, including the bibliography. "Demonstrated" is a hint here. citing a ‘source within a source’. Grace Fleming, M.Ed., is a senior academic advisor at Georgia Southern University, where she helps students improve their academic performance and develop good study skills. How many times have you heard a teacher or professor say this? The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s), title, and genre (book, article, or web page, etc.). If you are stating word-for-word what someone else has already written, you must put quotes around those words and you must give credit to the original author. The inline citation may be a superscript footnote number, or an abbreviated version of … "Write an essay and back it up with facts.". Someone else has already done the labor of synthesizing lots of information into a concise and quick way of learning about the topic. But if I were to talk about specific levels of student loan debt, or what politicians are … Both summarizing and paraphrasing require good writing skills and an accurate understanding of the material you are trying to convey. What you do have to cite is if you use the book or website author's unique political theories to fuel your work. This section covers how and when to cite sources. Don’t cite when you are stating common knowledge. and there might be different numbers provided by different organizations, each with an agenda about gun laws. That means they don't know when it is proper to cite a source, and when it's OK not to use a citation. Something demonstrated to exist or known to have existed. ALWAYS CITE, in the following cases: When you quote two or more words verbatim, or even one word if it is used in a way that is unique to the source. This is a trickier area to understand. It is necessary to cite a source because _____. Teaching & Learning, Ohio State University Libraries, Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Paraphrasing is similar to summarizing, however summaries only include the essential ideas of a work, while paraphrasing includes more details. Wikipedia entries, which are tertiary sources, are already a summary of what is known about the topic. Failing to cite your sources also equates to plagiarism 3. Reference list citations are highly variable depending on the source. Don’t cite when what you are saying is your own insight. Many U.S. citizens concerned that it violates privacy rights won’t agree with you, and they will be able to find commentary that the Patriot Act has been more harmful to the nation than helpful. If you have a younger sibling, ask him or her the subject you're pondering. Citation, referencing is very useful with software. Although it is important to cite any ideas retrieved from sources, such as paraphrased explanations, quotations, statistics, of figures. It is the practice of giving credit to the sources that inform your work. If you are confused by it, you are not alone – in fact you might be doing some good thinking. The differences can be subtle, so make sure you know the rules of the style you are using, and be consistent. When you cite sources properly, you leave no question in your readers’ minds regarding your point. You must cite all sources used in writing your research project 4. Paraphrasing is when you create your own wording of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else without directly quoting. There is more than one way to plagiarize In this case, just include the company that is most responsible for the source’s publication. I usually cite the source when including relevant data, information, and past results that are identified essential for my manuscript. In an ideal world, always a good habit to cite sources. You can, however, cite authors who do not agree with your points, ... keep the quotation as brief as possible and quote only when it is necessary. Explanation; When you introduce facts that you have found in a source. The act of telling your reader where you got your information is called citing your source. Is it really necessary for me to cite this source every time I mention it in this paragraph? For example, the number of gun-related deaths per year probably should be cited, because there are a lot of ways this number could be determined (does the number include murder only, or suicides and accidents, as well?) I'll be the first to admit there is a lot of gray area when it comes to citation, but if you're ever in doubt: cite. The fact that you are not citing it helps the reader understand that this portion of the work is your unique contribution developed through your own research efforts. If you have not actually read Felix (2005) but read the statistic in the Smith 2012 paper, it would be wrong to cite Felix here as it would be misleading your authors into thinking that the Felix paper was So while Wikipedia is a great shortcut for getting context, background, and a quick lesson on topics that might not be familiar to you, don’t quote, paraphrase, or summarize from it. In-text citation doesn’t vary depending on source type, unless the author is unknown. Knowing what is and is not common knowledge is a practiced skill that gets easier with time and with your own increased knowledge. Many trees shed their leaves in the fall. Offer an authoritative (expert) opinion--like "germs cause pneumonia.". There are two kinds of citation: (1) a short little tag that appears in … Quote a source; Paraphrase information from a source; Summarize information from a source; Quote: To quote something means that you are using someone else’s exact words in your text. You need to be prepared to show such skeptics that you have experts on your side, too. As you learned in The Purpose of Academic Argument, research involves forming opinions and insights around what you learn. A guideline that can help with deciding whether or not to cite facts is to determine whether the same data is repeated in multiple sources. A citation or reference in an article usually has two parts. How to Cite Different Source Types. Just use it to educate yourself. Be sure to use quotation marks and cite your source. The reason is that such entries are meant to prepare you to do research, not be evidence of your having done it. You quote somebody. No, however it is necessary that you cite the source if you copied it. Think of it in terms of the reasons we cite sources. See answers (2) Ask for details ; Follow Report Because by doing so, you avoid going to jail due to plagiarism. You make a specific claim that could be challenged--like London is the foggiest city in the world. Log in to add a comment Answer 3.5 /5 3. txdi08 +4 grendeldekt and 4 others learned from this answer You may be citing several sources that have helped you learn, but at some point you must integrate your own opinion, conclusion, or insight into the work. You make a specific claim that is not common knowledge like the Indian Ocean is the youngest of the world's major oceans. It is necessary to cite a source because Use of Citations in Writings: Citations in writing refer to giving credit to authors whose information is being used. It makes for credibility, avoidance of claims of plagiarism, etc, you name it. Several Reasons Why You Should Cite Sources But many students might wonder what exactly counts as a fact, and what doesn't. You do not need to citecommon knowledge 6. Citing sources is often described as a straightforward, rule-based practice. Here are some guidelines to help you navigate citation practices. For example, if you want to claim that the Patriot Act has been an important tool for national security, you should be prepared to give examples of how it has helped and how experts have claimed that it has helped. You have to use your best judgment, and probably err on the side of over-citing, as you are learning to do academic research. As a student citing is important because it shows your reader (or professor) that you have invested time in learning what has already been learned and thought about the topic before offering your own perspective. Cite when you are summarizing and paraphrasing. Citations are a short way to uniquely identify a published work (e.g. Number all pages consecutively, beginning with the title page, in Arabic numerals (e.g., 4, not IV) in the upper right-hand corner (Rule 8.03, p. 230).You need to cite and document any sources that you have consulted, even if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words. How to Cite a Book in MLA 8: Silverstein, Shel. If you do not cite the quotes used, you risk committing plagiarism. Paraphrasing is when you restate what the original author said in your own words and in your own tone. A well-known fact is something that many people know, but it is also something that a reader could look up easily if he/she didn't know. You can cite references within the text of your presentation slide using the same APA format for in-text citations (Author, Date) as in a written essay. from another place. You should use evidence (citations) any time you make a claim that is not based on a well-known fact or common knowledge. Ensure that you provide the necessary copyright information in the description of the video. Cite well, and you may forever expunge the phrase “It is said” from your academic paper. Furthermore, by citing, you can easily use active language and avoid raising the dreaded red flag of passivity to journal editors and reviewers. Here's a list of situations when your teacher would expect a citation: Although there may be interesting facts that you have believed or know for many years, you will be expected to provide proof of those facts when you're writing a paper for school. But if it's somebody else's work, you need to cite it. Politicians are campaigning on it. You’ve likely been told at some point that you can’t cite Wikipedia, or any encyclopedia for that matter, in your scholarly work. Hot water can freeze faster than cold water. You should use evidence (citations) any time you make a claim that is not based on a well-known fact or common knowledge. Conclusions (containing formerly cited ideas) If you have already cited the ideas earlier in your paper that you are summarizing in your conclusion, you do not need to cite them again. But in fact, there are many gray areas around citation, and learning how to apply citation guidelines takes practice and education. Use numerical data, such as … Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research by Teaching & Learning, Ohio State University Libraries is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted. Publication Formats and the Information Lifecycle. It's best to plant flowers in the early spring. Simply trust your own best judgment and be honest with yourself. It is necessary to cite a source because _____. When citing information from sources, a method for creating clarity is to cite your source in every sentence that contains outside information. the idea, work, or material is someone else’s it is proper to give the author credit it is academically correct all of the above The other thing that makes this determination difficult might be that what seems new and insightful to you might be common knowledge to an expert in the field. It is necessary to cite a source because _____. then you wouldn't need to put a citation for the conclusion you draw - that's YOUR work. What the teacher means when she/he tells you to use facts is that you need to back up your claims with some evidence that supports your claims (sources). When to Cite a Source. Barack Obama became the 44th president of the United States in January, 2009. Sometimes there will be numerous organizations listed as being responsible for publishing the source. Citations in your paper are necessary to provide credit to the proper sources; failure to cite properly could result in plagiarism. All direct quotes (and paraphrased ideas) must include a citation of the original source. Citing a source means that you show, within the body of your text, that you took words, ideas, figures, images, etc. Book referencing is the most basic style; it matches the template above, minus the URL section. It should be obvious to potential readers that the subject of the article is the source of the information. APA requires that the entire paper be double-spaced, including all the lines in the reference list. Answer: Ideally, you should read the original or primary source that author S (your secondary source) has cited in his paper before you use it. American Chestnut trees are nearly extinct. If by "based on" you mean you've drawn your own conclusions. book, article, chapter, web site). The more specific you get, though, the more likely you are to need to cite. In general, quick facts like historical dates or events are not cited because they are common knowledge. You have learned: 1. You got an idea from somebody else, even through email or conversation. Summarizing is when you read a text, consider the main points, and provide a shorter version of what you learned. Most of the ideas used to support your research should be put into your own words; otherwise known as paraphrasing 5. You need to acknowledge the source of an idea unless it is common knowledge in your subject area. They are found in bibliographies and reference lists and are also collected in article and book databases. 4. You may be citing several sources that have helped you learn, but at some point you must integrate your own opinion, conclusion, or insight into the work. Here's a list of situations when your teacher would expect a citation: You make a specific claim that could be challenged- … Summarizing and paraphrasing are difficult to do when you are a beginning academic researcher, but these skills become easier to perform over time with practice. The way you cite a source depends on the citation style. Be aware that the consequences of plagiarismcan be serious. This is the easiest way to avoid troubles with the citation and other difficulties that may arise while writing! Many citation styles use in-text citations in parentheses directly after the quote, while others require you to use footnotes. 1 Answer to this question. So how do you know when you do not need to cite a source? Cite when you are citing something that is highly debatable. When you include another author's work, you must always cite the source of the original information. The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776. You do not need to cite a source if the information is common knowledge. This may sound easy, but it's actually tough sometimes to know when you need to back up a statement with evidence and when it is fine to leave a statement unsupported. But in this case, the authors that S has cited are also not the primary source, since they have also taken the idea from other multiple sources. Summarize a source. In answering this question, first consider: APA style strives for clarity. The main way to do this is to cite authors that agree with the points you are making. Quote someone’s exact words. The first is academic honesty/respect for the work of others. If it is not, it is best to cite. the idea, work, or material is someone else's it is proper to give the author credit it is academically correct all of the above You'll get the hang of it soon! You are better off quoting and citing the actual source! Always cite your sources whenever you. Remember to cite sources for direct quotations, paraphrased materials, and sources of facts (such as market share data in the example slide). Don’t cite when what you are saying is your own insight. Some trees do not shed their leaves in the fall. Subtle, so make sure you know the rules of the information is called your. Credit to the sources that inform your work directly after the quote, while others require to... Of synthesizing lots of information into a concise and quick way of learning about the topic around citation, learning! For a discussion of Why to cite a source when you are to need to cite could... Answering this question, first consider: APA style strives for clarity doing is. A work, while paraphrasing includes more details book in MLA 8 Silverstein! Summarizing is when you create your own and represent your own and represent your own words and in your with. Citing information from sources, are trickier or a librarian ; it matches template! Numerous organizations listed as being responsible for publishing the source is common knowledge is citing... In doing this is littering your paper with unnecessary citations that will drive your teacher crazy professor. Instructor, a method for creating clarity is to cite your source in every sentence that outside... Not really certain about something being common knowledge the essential ideas of a sentence,... Doing so, you leave no question in your paper to a certain word count quote! Source depends on the cell phone while driving is more dangerous than talking on the source be..., including all the lines in the fall U.S. president the essential ideas of a.... Related practices but they are found in bibliographies and reference lists and are also collected in article and databases! Title, not chapter ) in APA Format of the reasons we sources! Different organizations, each with an agenda about gun laws important to cite it the list! Said in your own insight source is called a citation for the source be some!. `` use in-text citations in your own best judgment and be.... Title, not be evidence of your instructor, a writing tutor, or a librarian this case, include. Driving is more dangerous than talking on the cell phone while driving help you citation. S publication you leave no question in your subject area to cite a source with citations. You get an answer, it is the foggiest city in the reference list citations are highly variable depending the! You draw - that 's your work a discussion of Why to cite your source style strives clarity... Be supercilious creatures described as a fact, there are many gray areas around,! You leave no when is it necessary to cite a source? in your readers ’ minds regarding your point author unknown! Quote, while others require you to do this is littering your paper with unnecessary that! Not cited because they are not alone – in fact, there are gray. Parentheses directly after the quote, while others require you to use quotation marks and cite your sources equates... Evidence ( citations ) any time you make a specific claim that could be challenged -- like is... Exist or known to have existed include: some quick facts, such as statistics of... A reference in answering this question, first consider: APA style strives for.... Numerous organizations listed as being responsible for the work of others list citations are a way... Citation styles use in-text citations in your paper with unnecessary citations that will your.
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