Trajeron consigo una nueva y diferente cosmovisión, el cristianismo e iniciaron el proceso de conversión de los indígenas. He ordered the construction of thirteen sloops (brigantines) in Tlaxcala, by his master shipbuilder, Martín López. After Cortés' forces managed to defeat the smaller armies of some Aztec tributary states, Tepeyac, and later, Yauhtepec and Cuauhnahuac were easily won over. , It is well accepted that Cortés' indigenous allies, which may have numbered as many as 200,000 over the three-year period of the conquest, were indispensable to his success. :388–89 To maintain the advance, Cortés razed every neighborhood he captured, using the rubble to fill up canals and gaps in the causeways to allow his infantry and cavalry to advance in formation, a fighting tactic that favored the Spanish instead of engaging in hand-to-hand street fighting, which favored the Aztec. This would allow them the largest possible army that would be close to its supplies, while affording them the mobility provided by the surrounding lake. The Spaniards gradually advanced along the causeways, though without allies. [page needed], While Cortés was rebuilding his alliances and garnering more supplies, a smallpox epidemic struck the natives of the Valley of Mexico, including Tenochtitlan. :340–47 Cortés found Coyoacan, Tacuba, Atzcapotzalco, and Cuauhitlan deserted.  According to all eyewitness accounts, Moctezuma initially refused to leave his palace but after a series of threats from and debates with the Spanish captains, and assurances from Doña Marina, he agreed to move to the Axayáctal palace with his retinue. At any sign of weakness, Aztec nobles within Tenochtitlan and in other Aztec tributaries were liable to rebel. Cortés fought the Tabascans, the Cempoalans, the Tlaxcalans and found them strong opponents, but always prevailed. Therefore, they brutally crushed any tributaries who tried to send help to Tenochtitlan. El arte en la Antigua Roma (s.VIII a.C - 476 d.C.) GENERALIDADES DE LA MEDICINA ALTERNATIVA Y LAS DISTINTAS TERAPIAS. The epidemic lasted sixty days, ending by early December. The conquest of Mexico was a critical stage in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Cortés destruyó todo lo que se encontraba a su paso, mientras de los aztecas no dejaban de batallar y defender lo suyo. , The Spaniards prevented food and water from reaching Tenochtitlan along the three causeways. :396, As the Spanish employed more successful strategies, their stranglehold on Tenochtitlan tightened, and famine began to affect the Aztecs. In this Cortés showed skill at exploiting the divisions within and between the Aztec states while hiding those of his own troops. The many Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish are mentioned as playing an important role in the battle, armed with Spanish swords and shields. Xicotencatl the Elder provided Cortés with over ten thousand Tlaxcalan warriors under the command of Chichimecatecle.  Two other local rulers were found strangled as well. He started with the Tlaxcalans. Three stones hit him, one of them on the head, so cerebral hematoma is possible. Cano, another primary source, gives 1,150 Spaniards dead, though this figure was likely too high and might encompass the total loss from entering Mexico to arriving into Tlaxcala. , After several failed peace overtures to Cuauhtémoc, Cortés ordered Sandoval to attack that part of the city in which Cuauhtémoc had retreated. León, Portilla Miguel. , Cortés chanced to land at the borders of Cempoala, a recently Aztec-subdued vassal state with many grievances against them. They honored this god during the onset of the dry season so that the god would fill dry streambeds and cause rain to fall on crops. :363, With his brigantines, Cortés could also send forces and supplies to areas he previously could not, which put a kink in Cuauhtémoc's plan. Levy, Buddy, Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stands of the Aztecs, (New York: Bantam Books, 2008), 171. However, Cortés sent Andrés de Tapia, with 20 horsemen and 100 soldiers, and Gonzalo de Sandoval, with 20 horsemen and 80 soldiers, to help his allies attack this new threat. La caída de Tenochtitlan José Luis Pescador Se el primero en opinar. The latter gave him two good day battles and one night battle, and kept up a strong defence, holding off his army on a hilltop for two weeks. Each sloop had rigging, sails, oars, and spare oars. Ultimately, Spain conquered Mexico and thereby gained substantial access to the Pacific Ocean, which meant that the Spanish Empire could finally achieve its original oceanic goal of reaching the Asian markets. La Caída de Tenochtitlán es una de las historias más crueles en la historia de la conquista mexicana. , By the day of the festival, the Aztecs had gathered on the Patio of Dances. [page needed], With Moctezuma captive, Cortés did not need to worry about being cut off from supplies or being attacked, although some of his captains had such concerns. Levy, Buddy, Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stands of the Aztecs, (New York: Bantam Books, 2008), 168–70. :353–54, Cortés put Alvarado in command of 30 horsemen, 18 arbalesters and arquebusiers, 150 Spanish foot soldiers, and 8,000 Tlaxcalan allies, and sent him, accompanied by his brother Jorge de Alvarado, Gutierrez de Badajoz, and Andrés de Monjaraz, to secure Tacuba. In addition, Cortés astutely directed his forces in multiple directions in preparing his encirclement of the Aztec capital, and knew how to use the military initiative that he gained after the battle of Otumba. The famine was so severe that the Aztecs ate anything, even wood, leather, and bricks for sustenance. Ni los mexicas ni españoles imaginaron que el hecho llevaría tantos días, por lo que el cansancio se empezaba a notar entre ambos ejércitos. La captura de Cuauhtémoc y caída de Tenochtitlan «...y prendiéronle a él y a aquel Guatimucín y a aquel señor de Tacuba, y a otros principales que con él estaban; y luego, el dicho capitán Garci Holguín me trajo allí a la azotea donde estaba, que era junto al lago, al señor de … [page needed] Smallpox played a crucial role in the Spanish success during the Siege of Tenochtitlan from 1519–1521, a fact not mentioned in some historical accounts. :347–49, Returning to Texcoco, which had been guarded by his Captain Gonzalo de Sandoval, Cortés was joined by many more men from Castile. Cortés intended to do that primarily by increasing his power and mobility on the lake, while protecting "his flanks while they marched up the causeway", previously one of his main weaknesses. Pero, sobre todo, el apoyo de los tlaxcaltecas. As Cortés arrived in more densely inhabited areas east of the lake, the attacks were more forceful. El hecho se desarrollo durante varios días aproximadamente 3 meses y de manera muy planeada. He wanted all of their warriors ready the next day when he put thirteen sloops into the lake (misleadingly called "launches" in some translations). He ordered the gates closed and initiated the killing of many thousands of Aztec nobles, warriors and priests.  On that "Sad Night," July 1, 1520, the Spanish forces exited the palace first with their indigenous allies close behind, bringing as much treasure as possible. , Cuitlahuac contracted the disease and died after ruling for eighty days. Caída de México Tenochtitlan. Levy, Buddy, Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stands of the Aztecs, (New York: Bantam Books, 2008), 170–71. ", Cortés then decided to push forward a simultaneous attack towards the Mexican market square. Días previos al encuentro los mexicas colocaron estacas debajo del agua para que así bloquearan la zona e impedir que se acercaran los españoles, también hicieron bloqueos por tierra. The indigenous soldiers wore cotton armor and were armed with shields and crossbows; many carried provisions in baskets or bundles while others escorted the cannons on wooden carts. Cortés was ready to start the blockade of Mexico after Corpus Christi (feast). Cortés followed this tactic when he and his men established the city of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, also known as Veracruz, seven miles from the harbour of San Juan de Ulúa. He was supplied with darts sacred to Huitzilopochtli, which came with wooden tips and flint tops. , Alvarado sent word to Cortés of the events, and Cortés hurried back to Tenochtitlan on June 24 with 1,300 soldiers, 96 horses, 80 crossbowmen, and 80 arquebusiers. "Malintzin's Choices" Camilla Townsend University of New Mexico Press, 2006. Many Aztecs drank dirty, brackish water because of their severe thirst and contracted dysentery. In fact, the only serviceable portion of his army were his old followers with great experience of Mexican warfare, who were by this time severely whittled down by wounds and disease. , Moctezuma sent a group of noblemen and other emissaries to meet Cortés at Quauhtechcac. Velázquez felt that Cortés had exceeded his authority, and had been aware of Cortés's misconduct for nearly a year. [page needed], Heavy rains and a moonless night provided some cover for the escaping Spanish. The sacrifice involved the killing of a young man who had been impersonating the Toxcatl deity for a full year. :350–51 The Spaniards also held their third auctioning of branded slaves, Mexican allies captured by Cortés, "who had revolted after giving their obedience to His Majesty. It could also have been a tactical move: Moctezuma may have wanted to gather more information on the Spaniards, or to wait for the end of the agricultural season and strike at the beginning of the war season. It is possible he feared losing his life or political power; however, one of the effective threats wielded by Cortés was the destruction of his beautiful city in the case of fighting between Spaniards and Aztecs (which ultimately came to pass). La dominacióncomenzó en 1519, cuando Hernán Cortés, habiendo salido de la isla de Cuba, llegó a las costas mexicanas y conquistó sus territorios en nombre de la Corona española. , Cortés attempted to parlay with the Aztecs, and after this failed he sent Moctezuma to tell his people to stop fighting. Since Cortés won all his battles in Mexico before this while at the head of much inferior forces, being in charge of a nearly full Spanish tercio must have made him feel invincible.  Almost all of the Aztec nobility were dead, and the remaining survivors were mostly young women and very young children. :311–16, After winning over Chalco and Tlamanalco, Cortés sent eight Mexican prisoners to Cuauhtemoc stating, "all the towns in the neighborhood were now on our side, as well as the Tlaxcalans". [page needed], It was at this event where firsthand accounts were recorded in the Florentine Codex concerning the adverse effects of the smallpox epidemic of the Aztecs, which stated, "many died from this plague, and many others died of hunger. Muchas batallas existieron entre los ejércitos azteca y español, aquel compuesto mayoritariamente por indígenas. However, one faction of Tetzcocan warriors remained loyal to the Aztecs. "Hernando Cortés" by Fisher, M. & Richardson K. "Hernando Cortés" Crossroads Resource Online. Cortés wanted to flee to Tlaxcala, so a path directly east would have been most favorable. Cortés' chaplain back in Spain, Francisco López de Gómara, estimated that 450 Spaniards and 4,000 allies had died. They returned with two of the Matlazingo chieftains as prisoners. Boston: Beacon. After this move, the Aztecs could no longer attack from their canoes on the opposite side of the Spanish brigantines, and "the fighting went very much in our favour", according to Díaz. In fact, the Aztecs sent emissaries promising peace and prosperity if they would do just that. The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Ángel María Garibay K. (Nahuatl-Spanish trans. As hundreds of canoes filled the lake fleeing the doomed city, Cortés sent his brigantines out to intercept them. The Huejotzinco Cacique remained in Sandoval's camp with fifty men. The disease was probably carried by a Spanish slave from Narváez's forces, who had been abandoned in the capital during the Spanish flight. Usually, the new king would take his army on a campaign before coronation; this demonstration would solidify necessary ties.  (1992). harbour on Mexico's east coast, with 508 soldiers, 100 sailors, and 14 small cannons. Tlaxcala was an autonomous state, and a fierce enemy of the Aztecs. Como paradoja de su historia, el pueblo del sol nació con el agua y en ella se desvaneció. , At this time, the Aztecs began to prepare for the annual festival of Toxcatl in early May, in honor of Tezcatlipoca, otherwise known as the Smoking Mirror or the Omnipotent Power. The Spanish suffered some losses, but were victorious over the Aztecs, who then retreated and were pursued by cavalry. When they arrived at Tlacopan, a good number of Spaniards had been killed, as well as most of the indigenous warriors, and some of the horses; all of the cannons and most of the crossbows and other weapons were lost. , Though a flight from the city would make Cortés appear weak before his indigenous allies, it was this or death for the Spanish forces. 1469- 1506 19 de octubre de 1469 Contraen matrimonio Isabel, princesa de Castilla, y Fernando, heredero al trono de Aragón. Cortés then completed winning over Narváez's captains with promises of the vast wealth in Tenochtitlan, inducing them to follow him back to the Aztec capital. The newly-arrived Narvaéz's men did not have experience in local fighting and were worth much less in combat - and eventually perished in much greater numbers than the veterans. To make it more difficult for the Spanish ships to aid the Spanish soldier's advance along the causeways, the Aztecs dug deep pits in shallow areas of the lakes, into which they hoped the Spaniards would stumble, and fixed concealed stakes into the lake bottom to impale the launches. Cortés había hecho hasta lo imposible para lograr la toma de Tenochtitlan, para ello organizó a varios hombres muchos de los cuales eran indios, armas, caballos y demás instrumentos que favorecían al ejercito. However, the Spanish attack encountered such fierce resistance and numerous fatalities among his men, that the plan fell apart. I also told the captains of our allies that on no account should any of those people be slain; but there were so many that we could not prevent more than fifteen thousand being killed and sacrificed [by the Tlaxcalans] that day". He stationed 25 men on every sloop, 12 oarsmen, 12 crossbowmen and musketeers, and a captain. Every Spanish soldier that was not killed was wounded. Moctezuma received this information a few days before Cortés did. Andrea, Alfred J. and James H. Overfield. By the time the danger was recognized, the plague was well established that nothing could halt it". The northern valley was less populous, travel was difficult, and it was still the agricultural season, so the attacks on Cortés's forces were not very heavy. Two thousand warriors returned from Texcoco, as did many Tlaxcan warriors under Tepaneca from Topeyanco, and those from Huejotzingo and Cholula. The Spanish authorities would later disown this treaty with the Tlaxcalans after the fall of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs took this as a good sign, but they could fight no more, and after discussions with the nobles, Cuauhtémoc began talks with the Spanish. They could not get up and search for food, and everyone else was too sick to care for them, so they starved to death in their beds. "Cortés mandó hacer un banquete en Cuyuacán por alegrías de la haber ganado. Cortés decided on the west causeway to Tlacopan, needing the quickest route out of Tenochtitlan with all his provisions and people.  Diseases like smallpox could travel great distances and spread throughout large populations, which was the case with the Aztecs having lost approximately 50% of its population from smallpox and other diseases. Caída de Tenochtitlan (Foto: Wiki Commons) Cuando los españoles intentaron retirarse ya era demasiado tarde. The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. With his main headquarters in Texcoco, he could stop his forces from being spread too thin around the lake, and there he could contact them where they needed. Narváez's troops landed at San Juan de Ulúa on the Gulf of Mexico coast around April 20, 1520. [page needed], Before reaching Tlaxcala, the scanty Spanish forces arrived at the plain of Otumba Valley (Otompan), where they were met by a vast Aztec army intent on their destruction. Moctezuma refused all medical help as well as food, and died soon after the attack. , The Spanish continued to push closer to Tenochtitlan. 2006 The Broken Spears: the Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. , The Aztec continued to attack the Spaniards on the causeways, "day and night". Cuitláhuac had been elected as the emperor immediately following Moctezuma's death. , Cortés continued on his march towards Tenochtitlan. The Tlaxcalans were led by Xicotencatl II and Chichimecatecle. En Libros les traemos fragmentos de publicaciones elegidas por los editores de Este País. El 13 de agosto de 1521, tras deliberar con su Consejo, Cuauhtémoc decide rendirse a los españoles con el fin de evitar más sufrimientos. From the perspective of the tlatoani, the Spaniards might have been assigned some decisive role by fate. Gonzalo de Sandoval took 24 horsemen, 14 arquebusiers and arbalesters, 150 Spanish foot soldiers, and 8,000 warriors from Chalco and Huexotzinco, accompanied by Luis Marin and Pedro de Ircio, to secure Ixtlapalapan.  At least 40,000 Aztecs civilians were killed and captured. He was Ixtlilxóchitl II, who had disagreed with his brother and always proved friendly to the Spanish. Si bien es cierto que Bernal Díaz del Castillo cuenta en Historia verdadera de la Conquista en la Nueva España (1521) que tras la caída de Tenochtitlan se hizo un banquete donde hubo carne de cerdo. Clic en la imagen para ver la galería. Therefore, Cortés made the decision to abruptly abduct the tlatoani; only with a knife to his throat could Cortés ensure his cooperation. La historia de la conquista de México Tenochtitlan como jamás se había contado. The disease broke out in Tenochtitlan in late October 1520. Cristóbal de Olea and Cristóbal de Guzmán gave their lives for Cortés, and sixty-five Spanish soldiers were captured alive. Lakeside towns, including Iztapalapa, Churubusco, Culuacan, and Mixquic made peace with the Spaniards. ), Lysander Kemp (Spanish-English trans. [page needed] The Spanish finally found refuge in Otancalpolco, where they were aided by the Teocalhueyacans. [page needed], When Cortés finally reached Tlaxcala five days after fleeing Tenochtitlan, he had lost over 860 Spanish soldiers, over a thousand Tlaxcalans, as well as Spanish women who had accompanied Narváez's troops.  Cortés sent emissaries to negotiate with the Tlatelolcas to join his side, but the Tlatelolcas remained loyal to the Aztecs. While the fighting in the city raged, the Aztecs cut out and ate the hearts of 70 Spanish prisoners-of-war at the altar to Huitzilopochtli. , Throughout the battles with the Spanish, the Aztecs still practiced the traditional ceremonies and customs. 2. 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