Free Cloud Alliance : union pour un cloud libre, US government adopts ‘cloud-first’ policy, Orange and Thales welcome French State support for their joint project Andromède, Projet Andromède : SFR et Bull obtiennent le soutien de l'État pour le déploiement d’une infrastructure de cloud computing à vocation française et européenne, « Le Cloud Computing : Enjeux et points de vigilance », CNIL, Cloud computing, 7 étapes clés pour garantir la confidentialité des données, Make IT Green: Cloud computing and its contribution to climate change, Organisation de la distribution IT & Télécoms, Richard Stallman dénonce le caractère propriétaire du cloud computing, Larry Ellison critique le cloud computing, Le Cloud Computing pèsera 12 % des dépenses informatiques des entreprises en 2016, Algorithme de fouille de flots de données, Union internationale des télécommunications, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cloud_computing&oldid=177239294, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, ressources en libre-service avec adaptation automatique à la demande de la capacité de stockage et puissance de calcul, selon le besoin du consommateur, tant qu'il peut payer. [74] IaaS clouds often offer additional resources such as a virtual-machine disk-image library, raw block storage, file or object storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), and software bundles. ». [131] Some small businesses that don't have expertise in IT security could find that it's more secure for them to use a public cloud. A public-cloud delivery model converts, centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc. Cloud providers manage the infrastructure and platforms that run the applications. Yet, the "data center" model where users submitted jobs to operators to run on IBM's mainframes was overwhelmingly predominant. Les garanties relatives à la confidentialité des données, à la traçabilité des opérations et à la qualité des services sont à définir clairement, dont pour les applications critiques ou manipulant des données à caractères personnel, stratégique ou encadrées par une quelconque législation. The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user,[84] so prices become scalable and adjustable if users are added or removed at any point. Certains analystes indiquent que 20 à 25 % d’économies pourraient être réalisées par les gouvernements sur leur budget informatique s’ils migraient vers le cloud computing[39]. Un fournisseur de software as a service peut exploiter des services de type platform as a service, qui peut lui-même se servir de infrastructure as a service[10]. The growth has led to an increasing demand for quality and more specialized cloud computing services. It may also be free. In addition, to use by General Magic itself, it was also used in promoting AT&T's associated PersonaLink Services. For example, an organization may store sensitive client data in house on a private cloud application, but interconnect that application to a business intelligence application provided on a public cloud as a software service. The answer is Mainframes. -- 1 mai 2016 à 22:43 (CEST) Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator: Faible: Bon début [139] Major cloud technology companies invest billions of dollars per year in cloud Research and Development. Cloud computing shares characteristics with: Cloud computing exhibits the following key characteristics: The National Institute of Standards and Technology's definition of cloud computing identifies "five essential characteristics": On-demand self-service. Cette approche de type PaaS a recours à des API et à des kits de développement logiciel (SDK) pour relier les applications mobiles au back-end Cloud[14]. Andy Hertzfeld: "The beauty of Telescript," says Andy, "is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create a sort of a virtual service. [127][126] Identity management systems can also provide practical solutions to privacy concerns in cloud computing. Ces aspects, et la volonté des sociétés de l'offre de toucher les grands comptes comme les PME impliquent une distribution indirecte dont le métier devra évoluer vers des activités plus liées à l'évaluation, au support, à l'accompagnement et au pilotage, tout en tenant compte des spécificités du client final. Hybrid cloud adoption depends on a number of factors such as data security and compliance requirements, level of control needed over data, and the applications an organization uses.[107]. Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing. "Formulating Cost-Effective Monitoring Strategies for Service-based Systems." [19] In Wired's April 1994 feature "Bill and Andy's Excellent Adventure II", Andy Hertzfeld commented on Telescript, General Magic's distributed programming language: "The beauty of Telescript ... is that now, instead of just having a device to program, we now have the entire Cloud out there, where a single program can go and travel to many different sources of information and create a sort of a virtual service. 86.135.68.65 08:36, 24 February 2009 (UTC) I agree. [126] Many cloud providers can share information with third parties if necessary for purposes of law and order without a warrant. In cloud computing, elasticity is defined as "the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and de-provisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible". iPaaS enables customers to develop, execute and govern integration flows. By minimizing user involvement, automation speeds up the process, reduces labor costs and reduces the possibility of human errors. [7], Cloud providers typically use a "pay-as-you-go" model, which can lead to unexpected operating expenses if administrators are not familiarized with cloud-pricing models. [105] A hybrid cloud service crosses isolation and provider boundaries so that it can't be simply put in one category of private, public, or community cloud service. Un service de cloud décentralisé est un modèle de stockage en réseau[12] suivant lequel les données sont stockées sur de multiples machines dénommées « nœuds » et hébergées par les participants coopérant au cloud. [114][115][116], Poly cloud refers to the use of multiple public clouds for the purpose of leveraging specific services that each provider offers. Les technologies du cloud computing ont permis la mise au point de solutions de mégadonnées et de l'informatique ubiquitaire. "[72], IaaS-cloud providers supply these resources on-demand from their large pools of equipment installed in data centers. »[15]. AU - Hong, Tae Young. The word cloud was used as a metaphor for the Internet and a standardized cloud-like shape was used to denote a network on telephony schematics. [85] Proponents claim that SaaS gives a business the potential to reduce IT operational costs by outsourcing hardware and software maintenance and support to the cloud provider. [95], Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third party, and hosted either internally or externally. Some cloud providers offer guarantees for higher levels of service as a way to separate themselves from the pack. SaaS is sometimes referred to as "on-demand software" and is usually priced on a pay-per-use basis or using a subscription fee. À ce titre, la CNIL publie des recommandations pratiques[37] et des modèles de clauses contractuelles clés qui peuvent être insérés dans les contrats de services de cloud computing. La première initiative concerne la création d'un environnement distribué (cloud computing test bed) facilitant la recherche et les tests de logiciels, d'administration de centres de données et de matériels associés à l'informatique dans le nuage à une échelle jamais atteinte. [51], Cloud computing uses concepts from utility computing to provide metrics for the services used. Cloud applications differ from other applications in their scalability—which can be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet changing work demand. Requirements for IT size change defines business strategy and actual market state. Cloud users do not manage the cloud infrastructure and platform where the application runs. In 2016 a handful of companies, including R-HPC, Amazon Web Services, Univa, Silicon Graphics International, Sabalcore, Gomput, and Penguin Computing offered a high performance computing cloud. On peut considérer que le cloud computing, associé à une disponibilité des accès au réseau internet en haut débit et en très haut débit interconnectés, a fait émerger tout un secteur d'activité, des entités qui, de manière transverse, offrent des services Web à destination du grand public sous forme d'applications Web ou, plus spécifiquement, à destination du secteur professionnel, nécessitant une approche orientée services et des prestations productives (dématérialisation, gestion de contenus), architecturés sur mesure. [1] The term is generally used to describe data centers available to many users over the Internet. AU - Kim, Ki Bong. Though service-oriented architecture advocates "Everything as a service" (with the acronyms EaaS or XaaS,[73] or simply aas), cloud-computing providers offer their "services" according to different models, of which the three standard models per NIST are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Software as a Service (SaaS). Von Laszewski, Gregor, et al. Cloud environs are increasingly maturing at a fast rate. [37], In July 2010, Rackspace Hosting and NASA jointly launched an open-source cloud-software initiative known as OpenStack. Les caractéristiques du cloud sont qualifiées par les anglophones sous le vocable elastic computing capacity. Ce concept est présenté comme une évolution majeure par certains analystes très connus, comme le Gartner Group [20], et comme une mode correspondant à des motivations commerciales, par d'autres spécialistes. "OPEN-source IaaS fit for purpose: a comparison between OpenNebula and OpenStack." Many Terms of Service agreements are silent on the question of ownership. Autonomic computing automates the process through which the user can provision resources on-demand. [22] They experimented with algorithms to optimize the infrastructure, platform, and applications to prioritize CPUs and increase efficiency for end users.[24][22]. IBM cloud computing is a set of cloud computing services for business offered by the information technology company IBM. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 3 décembre 2020 à 18:20. [106] This example of hybrid cloud extends the capabilities of the enterprise to deliver a specific business service through the addition of externally available public cloud services. Fewer options at a much cheaper price: it's a feature, not a bug." Containerisation offers higher performance than virtualization because there is no hypervisor overhead. (Part 1) – Schneier on Security", "Disadvantages of Cloud Computing (Part 1) – Limited control and flexibility", "Cloud solutions for translation, yes or no? 2. T1 - Evaluation of P2P and cloud computing as platform for exhaustive key search on block ciphers. La promotion du cloud computing public a été rendue possible par la généralisation des accès à Internet des particuliers (avec 75 % des ménages français équipés d'Internet à domicile, selon les données de 2011 du Crédoc[18]) et des entreprises. Performance evaluations of three different PaaS providers, i.e., Cloud Foundry, Heroku, and OpenShift, were conducted using the AHP and LSP methods relative to computing power, database operations, and memory bandwidth. Cloud Computing, that is providing computer resources as a service, is a technol-ogy revolution offering flexible IT usage in a cost efficient and pay-per-use way. Un premier livre blanc datait de novembre 2011, dont certains de ces résultats sont cités dans l'édition 2012, Le livre blanc du cloud, du SaaS et des services Managés pour la distribution IT & Télécoms -. Together, these form shared technology vulnerabilities. According to the Cloud Security Alliance, the top three threats in the cloud are Insecure Interfaces and APIs, Data Loss & Leakage, and Hardware Failure—which accounted for 29%, 25% and 10% of all cloud security outages respectively. Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access tae shared pools o configurable system resources an higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned wi minimal management effort, often iver the Internet.Cloud computing relies on sharing o resoorces tae achieve coherence an economies o scale, similar tae a public utility. Services include user management, push notifications, integration with social networking services[87] and more. L'informatique en nuage induit une consommation d'énergie croissante et contribue au réchauffement climatique et des milieux par leur énergie grise et via les fermes de serveurs nécessaires à l'informatique en nuage. Also, container capacity auto-scales dynamically with computing load, which eliminates the problem of over-provisioning and enables usage-based billing. En anglais, on parlait alors de « the cloud ». The OpenStack project intended to help organizations offering cloud-computing services running on standard hardware. A cross-platform hybrid cloud is usually powered by different CPU architectures, for example, x86-64 and ARM, underneath. Rapid elasticity. The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider. [2] Large clouds, predominant today, often have functions distributed over multiple locations from central servers. Cela dépend du mode d'utilisation (fréquence, nombre d'utilisateurs…) et de la durée de vie de l'application. CiteSeerX - Scientific articles matching the query: Reliability Evaluation of Cloud Computing Systems Using Hybrid Methods. The cloud aims to cut costs and helps the users focus on their core business instead of being impeded by IT obstacles. Ce calcul ne doit pas se limiter aux coûts directs, mais doit aussi intégrer l'ensemble des coûts cachés pour que le cloud permette d'économiser ainsi que l'effet des avantages du cloud sur le business de l'entreprise (productivité accrue, recentrage métier…). dPaaS users access data through data-visualization tools. [51] The main enabling technology for cloud computing is virtualization. [78] Under the iPaaS integration model, customers drive the development and deployment of integrations without installing or managing any hardware or middleware. En France, dans le cadre des investissements d'avenir, deux consortiums, Cloudwatt mené par Orange et Thales[28], et Numergy, mené par SFR et Bull[29], ont été mis en place à la suite d'un appel à projet gouvernemental[30]. NIST SP 500-322 Evaluation of Cloud Computing Services Based on NIST 800-145. [27], In early 2008, NASA's Nebula,[28] enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project, became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds, and for the federation of clouds. [109] Cloud bursting enables data centers to create an in-house IT infrastructure that supports average workloads, and use cloud resources from public or private clouds, during spikes in processing demands. This delivers great incentive to public cloud computing service providers to prioritize building and maintaining strong management of secure services. Mais le coût total à moyen et long termes peut se révéler, au bout de quelques années, supérieur au coût d'une application hébergée en interne. In cloud computing, the control of the back end infrastructure is limited to the cloud vendor only. Quelle est la différence entre les termes "GRID computing" et "Cloud Computing" Je crois que la différence est que, dans le GRID computing, on est maître des ordinateurs qui partagent le calcul (on les achète, on les met en réseau, on les administre soi-même, etc. Les activités traditionnelles de la distribution informatique et télécoms seront revues avec un prisme cloud, avec comme pour toute émergence d'une nouvelle industrie, de nouveaux métiers, et l'évolution de métiers existants. [126] Users can encrypt data that is processed or stored within the cloud to prevent unauthorized access. [117], The issues of transferring large amounts of data to the cloud as well as data security once the data is in the cloud initially hampered adoption of cloud for big data, but now that much data originates in the cloud and with the advent of bare-metal servers, the cloud has become[118] a solution for use cases including business analytics and geospatial analysis. EVALUATION OF CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICES . Cloud microphysics parameterization is required in most NWP models because a sophisticated, explicit prediction of the evolution of cloud microstructure is either impossible or impractical even with the most advanced computing resources. ", "How Cloudbursting "Rightsizes" the Data Center", "Cross-Platform Hybrid Cloud with Docker", "Pivotal's head of products: We're moving to a multi-cloud world", "Polycloud: a better alternative to cloud agnosticism", "Is the Cloud Finally Ready for Big Data? Or, la 4G réclame, selon certaines études, 20 fois plus d'énergie qu'une connexion filaire (fibre, ADSL) pour transporter une quantité analogue de données[42]. ", IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD), 2012. L'anglicisme cloud computing[8] est largement utilisé en France. [22] They began to use the cloud symbol to denote the demarcation point between what the provider was responsible for and what users were responsible for. Cela lui reviendra certainement moins cher que si elle avait du acheter et gérer toute l'année une infrastructure informatique capable d'absorber cette charge importante mais éphémère. To accommodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be multitenant, meaning that any machine may serve more than one cloud-user organization. IBM Cloud includes infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) offered through public, private and hybrid cloud delivery models, in addition to the components that make up those clouds. Dans ce contexte, l'ancêtre du SaaS correspondait au ASP[16]. Pour cette opération, les trois partenaires ont associé l'Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (en), l'Université de l'Illinois à Urbana-Champaign et l'Institut de technologie de Karlsruhe. IT industry is expanding day by day and so are the businesses using the cloud services. [35][36], In February 2010, Microsoft released Microsoft Azure, which was announced in October 2008. Varied use cases for hybrid cloud composition exist. Sous-catégories. [citation needed], In the mobile "backend" as a service (m) model, also known as backend as a service (BaaS), web app and mobile app developers are provided with a way to link their applications to cloud storage and cloud computing services with application programming interfaces (APIs) exposed to their applications and custom software development kits (SDKs). Il ne nécessite plus de supports, comme les CD, ou de matériel, comme les consoles de jeux. Les données peuvent être découpées et chiffrées avant d’être envoyées vers le cloud décentralisé. Les architectes de réseaux (ceux qui conçoivent les réseaux intra- et inter-entreprises) schématisaient cet accès par un nuage dans leurs croquis. Selon le livre blanc du cloud[52] édité à l'occasion d'un événement annuel réunissant les acteurs du cloud[53], les activités suivantes peuvent être distinguées : Pour Richard Stallman[54],[55], à l'origine du projet GNU, l'informatique dans le nuage « est un piège », les utilisateurs perdent le contrôle de leurs applications. Ceci contraste avec la technique classique des hébergeurs où une demande écrite doit être faite au fournisseur pour obtenir une augmentation de capacité - demande nécessitant en outre un certain temps. The computer utility could become the basis of a new and important industry. En cloud computing, les entreprises ne se servent plus de leurs serveurs informatiques, mais accèdent à des services en ligne d'une infrastructure gérée par le fournisseur. Several studies aim at comparing these open source offerings based on a set of criteria. International Journal of Electronic Business Management 11.3 (2013), L. Albertson, "OpenStack vs. Ganeti", LinuxFest Northwest 2017, Qevani, Elton, et al. The advantages include enhanced runtime flexibility and adaptive memory processing unique to virtualized interface models. Les applications et les données ne se trouvent plus sur l'ordinateur local, mais dans un nuage composé de serveurs distants interconnectés. By having these passwords, they are able to read private data as well as have this data be indexed by search engines (making the information public). Le recours au cloud computing permet de décharger les équipes informatiques des entreprises, qui ont alors plus de disponibilité pour des activités à haute valeur ajoutée. The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider's applications running on a cloud infrastructure. [23] As computers became more diffused, scientists and technologists explored ways to make large-scale computing power available to more users through time-sharing. [100] Architecturally, there are few differences between public- and private-cloud services, but security concerns increase substantially when services (applications, storage, and other resources) are shared by multiple customers. [72] These models offer increasing abstraction; they are thus often portrayed as layers in a stack: infrastructure-, platform- and software-as-a-service, but these need not be related. PaaS vendors offer a development environment to application developers. Cloud computing is beneficial to many enterprises; it lowers costs and allows them to focus on competence instead of on matters of IT and infrastructure. Chaque nœud utilise un logiciel permettant de mettre à disposition de l’espace de stockage. Ce nom est associé au symbole en forme de nuage (« cloud ») représentant parfois l'Internet dans les schémas des réseaux informatiques[5]. Cost reductions are claimed by cloud providers. Les francisations « informatique en nuage »[2], « informatique dématérialisée »[6], ou plus rarement « infonuagique »[7] sont également utilisées. Cloud computing is the on-demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage (cloud storage) and computing power, without direct active management by the user. [75], The NIST's definition of cloud computing describes IaaS as "where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. ), mais aussi de contenu, comme la vidéo à la demande (VAD). Les principaux services proposés en cloud computing sont le SaaS (Software as a Service), le PaaS (Platform as a Service) et le IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) ou le MBaaS (Mobile Backend as a Service). Cloud computing attempts to address QoS (quality of service) and reliability problems of other grid computing models.[51]. 2 . IEEE, 2014. 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