Harmful algal blooms that occur in the ocean and on the coast are most often caused by organisms known as dinoflagellates. Most dinoflagellates live in salt water, and other kinds of dinoflagellates cause HABs along the Atlantic coast. Countless fish, hundreds of sea turtles, manatees and dolphins have been killed by toxins from Karenia brevis, the single-celled algae responsible for Florida’s rust-colored blooms. The rapid accumulation of algal blossom can be significant enough to cause a green, red or brown discoloration of estuarine and freshwater environments. It is one of about 10 species of Karenia found in the ocean but it is the dominant form in the Gulf of Mexico. The research team studied four red tide blooms caused by the harmful algae species Karenia brevis in 2001, '07, '08 and '09, plus the non-bloom year 2010. However, under certain environmental conditions, microscopic marine algae called Karenia brevis (K. brevis) grow quickly, creating blooms that can make the ocean appear red or brown. Occasionally, large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms naturally bloom in coastal areas. What forms of nutrients can Karenia brevis use to grow and bloom? They also use minerals and vitamins in smaller amounts. Eating contaminated shellfish causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Monospecific blooms of phytoplankton can disrupt pelagic communities and negatively affect human health and economies. What forms of nutrients can Karenia brevis use to grow and bloom? May 2004 Page 1 of 1 About Red Tide BACKGROUND Algae are vitally important to marine ecosystems, and most species of algae are not harmful. Red tide is a colloquial term for a specific phenomenon known as harmful algal bloom. Another toxin that accumulates in shellfish is brevetoxin, produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Fish kill: Red tide-causing algae Karenia brevis produces brevetoxins that affect the central nervous system of fish, often causing them to die. There are also “brown tides” which can be damaging as well. ... make shellfish toxic to eat … The major nutrients that algae use for growth are nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Red tides are caused by a specific type of dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (K. brevis). Karenia brevis can utilize at least 13 different sources of nutrients, including multiple forms of nitrogen and phosphorus. Less commonly, K. brevis … Its name is Karenia brevis. They also discussed a … Karenia brevis (kă-ren'ē-ă brev-is), A dinoflagellate known for producing potent neurotoxins and accumulating in high concentrations in warm murine environments producing the phenomenon of red tide. Some algae species, like the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, color the ocean surface a deep red, inspiring the name “red tide.” But not all red tides are red and not all of them even become dense enough to color the water. The worst cases of PSP result in respiratory failure and death within 12 hours. Interspecific competition may play an important role in promoting blooms, and so we tested (1) whether the outcome of competition between the red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (ex Gymnodinium breve) and 12 cooccurring phytoplankters could be explained by … That is what we plan to do here… But, the enemy is a microscopic plant. Karenia is referred to as “phytoplankton”, which suggests it is a microscopic plant. The bloom of organisms may turn the water color red or golden; may reach a concentration of 20 million organisms per liter. We need nutrients and so do algae. 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