Following the surrender of the Japanese in 1945, civil administration of Papua as well as New Guinea was restored, and under the Papua New Guinea Provisional Administration Act, (1945–46), Papua and New Guinea were combined in an administrative union. 8. With Europe's growing need for coconut oil, Godeffroy's of Hamburg, the largest trading firm in the Pacific, began trading for copra in the New Guinea Islands. Make the most of your Papua New Guinea journey by planning ahead. As noted, it was later joined in an administrative union with New Guinea during 1945-46 following the surrender of Japan, and Papua New Guinea was born. Its neighbours include Indonesia to the west, Australia to the south and Solomon Islands to the south-east. However, his government lost a vote of confidence in 1980 and was replaced by a new cabinet headed by Sir Julius Chan as Prime Minister. The low-lying plains of southern New Guinea are geologically part of the Australian Plate. In early September 1942 Japanese marines attacked a strategic Royal Australian Air Force base at Milne Bay, near the eastern tip of Papua. 2. Leahy and his brother Dan looked for gold and explored in the highlands for four years together with Patrol Officer James Taylor. The party returned to Madang, sailing for Sydney on 3 July 1930. The country has several active volcanoes. Congregations. After being liberated by the Australians in 1945, it became a United Nations trusteeship, administered by Australia. 2. New Guinea is the second largest island in the world after Greenland. Most of West Papua, at that time known as Dutch New Guinea, was occupied, as were large parts of the Territory of New Guinea (the former German New Guinea, which was also under Australian rule after World War I), but Papua was protected to a large extent by its southern location and the near-impassable Owen Stanley Ranges to the north. The prehistory of Papua New Guinea can be traced to about 60,000 years ago, when people first migrated towards the Australian continent. Explorer and Pirate William Dampier. An exception is the record of the Akmana Gold Prospecting Company's Field Party which carried out two expeditions from September to December 1929 and from mid February to the end of June 1930. Family History Centers. During the Pacific War, Papua was governed by an Australian military administration from Port Moresby, where General Douglas MacArthur occasionally made his headquarters. In the past, headhunting and cannibalism occurred in many parts of what is now named Papua New Guinea. [10] Having had their initial effort to capture Port Moresby by a seaborne invasion disrupted by the U.S. Navy in the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Japanese attempted a landward invasion from the north via the Kokoda Trail. The mission's report, The Economic Development of the Territory of Papua New Guinea, published in 1964, set out the framework upon which much of later economic policy, up to and beyond independence, proceeded. History. They prospected south along the Baiyer River to its junction with the Maramuni and Tarua Rivers, where they established a palisaded forward camp naming the place 'Akmana Junction.' However, when Germany began settlements in the north a British protectorate was proclaimed in 1884 over the southern coast of New Guinea and its adjacent islands. In the charter granted to this company by the German Imperial Government in May 1885, it was given the power to exercise sovereign rights over the territory and other "unoccupied" lands in the name of the government, and the ability to "negotiate" directly with the native inhabitants. This led to the annexation of the protectorate in 1902 with the Commonwealth of Australia exercising authority over it. The initial spark was a fight between ethnic Chinese and Papua New Guinean workers at a nickel factory under construction by a Chinese company. Seale presented two wigs to the National Museum Canberra in 1930.'[9]. Modern Papua New Guinea (1998) online; Primary sources. New Guinea has been inhabited for some 10,000 years, but its recorded history began with the visits of Portuguese explorers in the early 16th century, followed by Dutch traders. Papua New Guinea only gained independence from Australia in 1975. During their first expedition the Akmana Field Party prospected the tributaries of the Arrabundio and then trekked across a spur of the Central Mountain Range to sample the Upper Karrawaddi River. Some 300 years ago, the sweet potato entered New Guinea with its far higher crop yields, transforming traditional agriculture. As of October 2017 new groups of people occasionally are still contacted. Papua New Guinea facts: Official web sites of Papua New Guinea, links and information on Papua New Guinea's art, culture, geography, history, travel and tourism, cities, the capital city, airlines, embassies, tourist boards and newspapers. It is mainly mountainous but has low-lying plains in southern New Guinea. The possession was placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1902. The incumbent Prime Minister, Peter O’Neill, came into office in 2011. These contacts were often with the help of Drybow/Dribu, a leader and spokesman of the wig–men, a most intelligent man of goodwill, with a quiet authority that brought forth friendly cooperation. The possession was placed under the authority of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1902. Gain permission to visit the archaeological sites at Kuk Valley, in Western Highlands, the first place on earth to cultivate land for gardening. The 1982 elections increased Pangu's plurality, and parliament again chose Somare as prime minister. Michael Leahy was an Australian prospector from rural Queensland who is known for making first contact with our highlands people in Papua New Guinea in 1932. Although the first arrivals were hunters and gatherers, early evidence shows that people managed the forest environment to provide food. Current records at the Australian Museum show that Beazley's wig, described as "a cap composed of human hair from the headwaters of the U–at River, Central Mountains, Mandated Territory of NG", was lodged on 31 January 1930, presumably on his quick visit to Sydney after the first expedition. PAPUA NEW GUINEA’S EARLY HISTORY. In 1888, when Sir William MacGregor became British New Guinea’s administrator, he established a native police force to spread the benefits of British government. In mid February 1930 the second expedition quickly returned to their Mountain Base and on across the mountains to the junction of the Yuat with the Baiyer and Jimmi Rivers. Following the passage of the Papua Act of 1905, British New Guinea became the Territory of Papua, and formal Australian administration began in 1906. During the war, Papua was governed by a military administration from Port Moresby, where Gen. Douglas MacArthur occasionally made his headquarters. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has 3 official main languages such as English, Hiri Motu, and Tok Pisin. Papua New Guinea Profile ; History ; Australia and New Zealand Help Manage Election In early June 2012, Australia and New Zealand sent troops to Papua New Guinea to help keep order in general elections. [The primary source for this text is the U.S. Army Center for Military History. New Guinea was possibly occupied as early as 50,000 years ago. The Country Is Highly Unsafe For Women . Readings in New Guinea history (1973) Tim Flannery Throwim' Way Leg: Tree-Kangaroos, Possums, and Penis Gourds (2000) memoir excerpt and text search; Malinowski, Bronislaw. [citation needed], From February to March 2018, a chain of earthquakes hit Papua New Guinea, causing various damages. Home; Countries; Papua New Guinea; Historical Events. For a more general overview of the war see the Brief History of WWII e-text."] [16] The House of Assembly of Papua and New Guinea replaced the Legislative Council in 1963, and after elections on 15 February, opened on 8 June 1964. Preparations were underway in 2015. Being home to about 12 percent of the world’s languages is quite a feat even if most of those … After World War I, Australia was given a mandate to administer the former German New Guinea by the League of Nations. However, Christian-majority Philippines and Buddhist-majority Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia have expressed displeasure over Papua New Guinea's anti-LGBT laws, stating that equality-friendly Timor-Leste would most likely be a more feasible ASEAN member state in the future. 2. As of 2018, almost half of the children in Papua New Guinea suffered from chronic malnutrition. The autonomous Bougainville elected Joseph Kabui as president in 2005, who served until his death in 2008. Australia's change of policy towards Papua New Guinea largely commenced with the invitation from the Australian Government to the World Bank to send a mission to the Territory to advise on measures to be taken towards its economic development and political preparation. [21][22], Exploration of Mandated Territory of New Guinea, Ernest Alfred Shepherd, 'Akmana: A new name in the continuing story of New Guinea exploration' "Pacific Islands Monthly" April 1971 pp. Facing tropical disease, difficult terrain and well constructed Japanese defences, the allies only secured victory with heavy casualties.[12]. This is much higher than the global average and causes a large percentage of hospital deaths for children under five. H. N. Nelson, 'Cleland, Sir Donald Mackinnon (1901–1975)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 13, Melbourne University Press, 1993, pp 440–441. In 1884 Germany and Great Britain divided the islands between themselves. The British Government, on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, assumed a mandate from the League of Nations for governing the Territory of New Guinea in 1920. [17][18], Numerous Chinese have worked and lived in Papua New Guinea, establishing Chinese-majority communities. Independence from Australia was obtained on September 16, 1975. It is home to the world’s most number of spoken languages estimated to over 850. The Akmana Gold Prospecting Field Party made contact with many peoples they called: grass country people, head hunters, pygmies, wig–men, Kanakas, Poomani. In 1975 Papua New Guinea gained independence. Important and Interesting Facts about Papua New Guinea #amazing #papua #new-guinea #facts New Guinea is one of the largest islands in the world. Related Read: 13 Bhutan Facts: Interesting Trivia On Culture, History, Food & More. History of Papua New Guinea. But nothing of note has been reported: So we did not leave much behind, it seems. New Guinea (as it used to be known), one of the first landmasses after Africa and Eurasia to be populated by modern humans, had its first migration at … Autonomy in internal affairs came nine years later, and in Sept. 1975, Papua New Guinea … Although European navigators visited the islands and explored their coastlines thereafter, European researchers knew little of the inhabitants until the 1870s, when Russian anthropologist Nicholai Miklukho-Maklai made a number of expeditions to New Guinea, spending several years living among native tribes, and described their way of life in a comprehensive treatise. Papua New Guinea celebrates its 40th anniversary of independence from Australia today. Following the passage of the Papua Act in 1905, British New Guinea became the Territory of Papua, and formal Australian administration began in 1906, although Papua remained under their control as a British possession until the independence of Papua New Guinea in 1975.[4]. In 1899, the German government took control of the colony from the New Guinea company of Berlin. There are hundreds of ethnic groups indigenous to Papua New Guinea; Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth, except Vanuatu. Anti-Chinese rioting involving tens of thousands of people broke out in May 2009. New Guinea and some of Papua were invaded by Japanese forces in 1942. Returning to Madang at the end of December 1929, several of the party went back to Sydney to obtain instructions from the Akmana Gold Prospecting Company. A coalition, headed by Wingti, was victorious in very close elections in July 1987. He instituted the policy of ‘government by patrol’, which continued through the Australian period. History of Papua New Guinea. Papua was administered under the Papua Act until World War II, when Japanese forces invaded the northern parts of the islands in 1941 and began to advance on Port Moresby, suspending civil administration. They had not progressed to any country on the southern watershed through which the early explorers and prospectors travelled to the Hagan Range and Wabag. 41–9, Ernest Alfred Shepherd, "Akmana: A new name in the continuing story of New Guinea exploration" Pacific Islands Monthly April 1971 p. 49, Ernest Alfred Shepherd, "Akmana: A new name in the continuing story of New Guinea exploration" Pacific Islands Monthly April 1971 p.49. Papua New Guinea became self-governing on 1 December 1973 and achieved independence on 16 September 1975. They were beaten back by the Australian Army, and the Battle of Milne Bay is remembered as the first outright defeat on Japanese land forces during World War II. Shepherd presented another wig to Father Kirschbaum, who wanted to send it to Germany. 2. Index . Trek, Dive, Fish, Kayak, Swim, go on a Cultural Journey and More! After leading the first expedition, Sam Freeman did not return and Reg Beazley became party leader of the second expedition, with Pontey Seale mining engineer, Bill MacGregor and Beazley prospectors and recruiters, and Ernie Shepherd in charge of transport and supplies, prospecting when opportunity arose. My wife and I are in Papua New Guinea right now. Healthcare, water and sanitation, civil unrest and education are all behind this statistic. In 1926 Freeman was near Marienberg with Ormildah drilling for oil; Shepherd was with Dr. Wade and R.J. Winters on their geological survey of an oil lease of 26,000 square kilometres (10,000 sq mi) in the Bogia and Nubio to Ramu region and up the Sepik River to Kubka 100 km (60 mi) above Ambunto. Family History Centers. The territories were combined and called the Territory of Papua and New Guinea (PNG). 71 Branches. In 1899, the German imperial government assumed direct control of the territory, thereafter known as German New Guinea. History. The two territories were combined into the Territory of Papua and New Guinea after World War II, which later was simply referred to as "Papua New Guinea". Papua New Guinea became self-governing on 1 December 1973 and achieved independence on 16 September 1975. In November 1985, the Somare government lost another vote of no confidence, and the parliamentary majority elected Paias Wingti, at the head of a five-party coalition, as Prime Minister. With an average life expectancy of 62.9 years, the nation is ranked 157 out of 187 countries on the Human Development Index. [1][2] They came probably by sea from Southeast Asia during an Ice Age period when the sea was lower and distances between islands shorter. 30,825. These two went on to make the award winning documentary, First Contact. [19][20] On the same year, Papua New Guinea asked various southeast Asian nations for their support for Papua New Guinea's full membership bid in the ASEAN. The 1982 elections increased Pangu's plurality, and parliament again chose Somare as Prime Minister. Retracing their steps to the Arrabundio they then headed out across another spur of the Central Mountain Range to the Junction of the Yuat River with the Jimmi and Baiyer Rivers, again without finding gold in sufficient quantity. Australia granted limited home rule in 1951. Beazley was drilling test sites for oil with Matahower in the lower Sepik and he and McGregor recruited labour on the Sepik and explored grass country to Wee Wak. People have inhabited the area for thousands of years and even today the country has over 850 different languages and cultures. The Act provided for a Legislative Council (established in 1951), a judicial organization, a public service, and a system of local government, with Sir Donald Cleland as administrator. It was administered under this mandate until the Japanese invasion in December 1941 brought about the suspension of Australian civil administration. Today's staples – sweet potatoes and pigs – were later arrivals, but shellfish and fish have long been mainstays of coastal dwellers' diets. In all, some 200,000 Japanese soldiers, sailors and airmen died during the campaign against approximately 7,000 Australian and 7,000 American service personnel. James Tanis won that election in December 2008 and served until the inauguration of John Momis, the winner of the 2010 elections. The Administration of Papua became open to United Nations oversight. Crops include coconuts, bananas, sweet potatoes, and oil palm fruit. La Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, en forme longue l' État indépendant de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, est un pays d' Océanie occupant la moitié orientale de l' île de Nouvelle-Guinée sur une superficie de 462 840 km2 (l'autre moitié, la Nouvelle-Guinée occidentale, étant sous souveraineté indonésienne). The plantations were given to Australian war veterans and in 1921 the League of Nations gave Australia a trusteeship over New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Facts 1. The exploration of Papua–New Guinea has been a continuing process. Don Jorge de Meneses, a Portuguese explorer, is credited with the European discovery of the principal island of Papua New Guinea in around 1526-27. That mandate was administered by the Australian Government until the Japanese invasion in December 1941 brought about its suspension. A number of Portuguese and Spanish navigators sailing in the South Pacific in the early 16th century were probably the first Europeans to sight Papua New Guinea. Indeed, New Guinea was separated physically from The militia, worn out and severely depleted by casualties, were relieved in late August by regular troops from the Second Australian Imperial Force, returning from action in the Mediterranean theatre. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Pacific Islands home front during World War II, Papua New Guinea Provisional Administration Act, House of Assembly of Papua and New Guinea, chain of earthquakes hit Papua New Guinea, "Dating the colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia–New Guinea): a review of recent research", "Peopling of Sahul: mtDNA Variation in Aboriginal Australian and Papua New Guinean Populations", "Early humans lived in PNG highlands 50,000 years ago", http://ajrp.awm.gov.au/ajrp/remember.nsf/Web-Printer/C6FD73CC5C579789CA256AC000135979?OpenDocument, http://www.awm.gov.au/units/event_291.asp, http://www.awm.gov.au/units/event_340.asp, http://www.awm.gov.au/units/event_345.asp, http://www.awm.gov.au/wartime/23/new-guinea-offensive/, Australia's interest in Bougainville's independence is far from locals' wishes", Bougainville makes first preparations for referendum, "Looters shot dead amid chaos of Papua New Guinea's anti-Chinese riots", "Papua New Guinea earthquake: UN pulls out aid workers from violence-hit region", "Papua New Guinea earthquake: anger grows among 'forgotten victims, U.S. State Department Background Note: Papua New Guinea, The Royal Papua and New Guinea Constabulary a Pictorial History Web Page 1885-1975, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Papua_New_Guinea&oldid=987466501, Articles needing additional references from February 2007, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 November 2020, at 06:49. 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