Website created by, https://media.blubrry.com/usawc_warcast/p/warroom.armywarcollege.edu/wp-content/uploads/18-058-02-Lester-Whitt-Intel-no-1.mp3, IMPACT (OR NOT) OF INTEL ON STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING, NEEDLES IN HAYSTACKS: ANALYZING TODAY’S FLOOD OF INFORMATION, WHERE DOES INTELLIGENCE GO FROM HERE? The assignment fell to a Naval Intelligence officer attached to the ROK Navy, LT Eugene Clark. Heads of Departments and Agencies of the Executive Branch 4. We go to great lengths to keep these channels secure, but any communication via the internet poses some risk. Israeli intelligence, for example, had scored a coup by obtaining a MiG-21 fighter from an Iraqi defector, and it had determined that Egypt’s MiGs were better than all but their Mirage aircraft. For national security officials who are wading through floods of information, how do they find that nugget, … that piece of information that fits with all the other pieces? Israeli intelligence was, indeed, outstanding in the Six-Day War. Employment: We do not routinely answer questions about employment beyond the information on this Web site, and we do not routinely answer inquiries about the status of job applications. First, with reliable information on the Union order of battle and strategy, they were able to split their smaller forces to defend the Shenandoah Valley and to maintain a check on McDowell’s army. German leaders had a thorough understanding of their adversary’s capabilities, schedules, and concept of operations, and this knowledge allowed them to exploit Russian vulnerabilities and defeat them in detail. As General Hugh Shelton, former chairman of the joint chiefs of staff, noted in 2000: “Successful employment of modern weapons systems, new operational concepts, and innovative combat techniques— particularly those involving forces that are lighter, faster, more agile, and more lethal—also depends on rapid, precise, accurate, and detailed intelligence.”[42] It behooves the planner, the operator, political and military leadership, and members of the Intelligence Community to understand this and not relegate intelligence to a secondary status as authors such as John Keegan suggest. Of the roughly 150,000 Russian soldiers who fought in the battle of Tannenberg, some 30,000 were killed or wounded and another 95,000 captured. 2015-10-12T20:11:14-04:00 https: ... Admiral William McRaven (Retired) talked about what makes up and the importance of good intelligence. Prepublication Classification Review Board, Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room, news, press releases, information and more, Employment History has proven that actionable intelligence can lead less capable forces to victory. [15] The Japanese, like the Russians before Tannenberg, committed the egregious error of having to resend messages because command elements used outdated code books—US cryptologists had the benefit of capturing transmissions in both old and new codes, thereby providing multiple opportunities to mine transmissions for useful intelligence. With her for this discussion is Jacqueline E. Whitt, Professor of Strategy at the U.S. Army War College and the WAR ROOM podcast editor. By postal mail: Central Intelligence Agency Office of Public Affairs Washington, D.C. 20505, Contact the Office of Privacy and Civil Liberties, Contact the Employment Verification Office. [14]Henry F. Schorreck, Battle of Midway: The Role of COMINT at the Battle of Mid­way (SRH-230) (Washington, DC: Depart­ment of the Navy Historical Center, April 1999), 2. Battle is a physical activity and requires force. It cut his white jacket and raised a welt on his chest. As with battles on land, intelligence can drive the employment schemes necessary for a leader to win against superior odds at sea. After losing at Tannenberg, the Russian army could not muster enough offensive strength to re-enter Germany again until World War II. The relationship with the United States, in particular, served a critical role before the preemptive strike by making clear to both the CIA and Pentagon that war was inevitable and getting tacit buy-in on the plan. [8]See Col. Frederick E. Jackson, “Tannen­berg: The First Use of Signals Intelligence in Modern Warfare” as submitted to the United States Army War College (Carlisle Barracks, PA: US Army War College, 2002), 1–37. Meanwhile, the United States was facing its own strategic dilemmas. Midway was one of the decisive battles of history. © 2017 U.S. Army War College. THE DOD-CIA RELATIONSHIP: ARE WE MILITARIZING STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE? In the military, every piece of intelligence is centered around action. [41] History abounds with such examples. Answering this question is the purpose behind this exciting six-part podcast series on Intelligence. As Kenneth Pollack contends, “There was a colossal failure on the part of Cairo’s intelligence services to provide the Egyptian military with the information required to fight Israel.” He notes that Egyptian intelligence: was biased to the political climate and, therefore, did not provide clear and decisive analysis on whether Israel was going to attack; issued reports to commanders that changed daily and were often contradictory; provided no credible intelligence on Israel’s order of battle, effectiveness, doctrine, or planned strategy; had no intelligence on where Israeli forces were and, to the extent that it had information, fell victim to Israel’s denial and deception campaign; and, did not understand the concept of flexibility stressed by the Israeli military in conducting joint and independent operations.[37]. As he watched the disaster across the harbor unfold with terrible fury, a .50-caliber machine gun bullet crashed through the glass. Action-oriented intelligence. OP-20-G, though, reasoned that the target was Midway. And if the US command had it, it could compensate for the disproportionately large force that Japan could bring to bear. Clark and a companion measured tides and found that the mud flats initially selected for the attack were not suitable to withstand the weight of fully armed marines. Washington, D.C. 20505. Intelligence in this case gave the Confederates several advantages. However, with limited staff and resources, we simply cannot respond to all who write to us. Keegan’s analysis of the battle in Intelligence and War stresses that even with all the intelligence that Nimitz had, and while striking a sizable blow to the Japanese, it had nearly been a major US defeat: [M]idway demonstrates that even possession of the best intelligence does not guarantee victory…. Deployed on the 26th of August, he and his team silenced opposition on most of the islands by 8 September and began a thorough reconnaissance of approaches and Inchon itself. [24]Peter Harclerode, Fighting Dirty: The Inside Story of Covert Operations from Ho Chi Minh to Osama Bin Laden (London: Cassell & Co., 2001), 171–73. Victory was not certain—defeat was avoided only as a result of the decision to reinforce Beauregard. This information immediately made its way to Richmond. your local law enforcement or FBI Field “Armed with the support of excellent communications intelligence and of his superiors in Washington, CINCPAC was able to satisfy all three of Clausewitz’s ‘principles of warfare’: decision, concentration, and offensive action.”[21] Foreknowledge, not willpower, was the most decisive factor at Midway. Office. With a full understanding of what he faced, MacArthur told the Joint Chiefs of Staff that he could conduct a successful amphibious operation. to locate the information you seek. Now the reason the enlightened prince and the wise general conquer the enemy whenever they move and their achievements surpass those of ordinary men is foreknowledge. McDowell began his march on the 16th, as Greenhow had reported, crossed the Bull Run at Sudley Ford on the 21st, and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. On 10 July the network demonstrated its worth, as Rose Greenhow sent word that “McDowell has certainly been ordered to advance on the sixteenth.”[6] This intelligence, however, proved insufficient to start the race. And while it was Jackson’s brigade under Johnston’s command that turned the tide of a hard fought battle, it was espionage that provided alternatives to Confederate political and military decisionmakers, allowing them to concentrate their forces and demonstrate that they could defeat the Union in a major engagement. Another way is through the support intelligence gives to planning, when it provides information on the adversary’s capabilities and vulnerabilities—in today’s terminology “intelligence preparation of the battlespace.”. This was all the more important as McDowell had a well-developed concept of operations and superior numbers. Israel chose to attack first. For the most recent work on Greenhow, based on new-found records, see Ann Blackman, Wild Rose: Rose O’Neale Greenhow, Civil War Spy (New York: Random House, 2005). ), “Review of John Keegan’s Intelligence and War,” Naval Intelligence Professionals Quarterly (Winter 2004): 32. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. On its southern border, Israel had roughly 70,000 troops in the Sinai against Egypt’s 100,000; 700 tanks against 950; and it had to distribute its 200 aircraft across all fronts while facing Egypt’s concentrated 430.[29]. None of the battles described were won by intelligence alone—victory was achieved by the application of force. Discover the CIA history, mission, vision and values. Dr. Genevieve Lester, the DeSerio Chair of Strategic Intelligence at the U.S. Army War College, is the host for the series and she leads off the series with a discussion of the purpose and present-day challenges facing the intelligence field. To gather intelligence on the enemy, he initially relied upon subordinates to scout and report back with information, but inaccurate reports led to early defeats (Daigler, 2014). How would Germany have fared had it been faced with defeat on the Eastern Front just one month after the initiation of hostilities in 1914? [30] And while Israeli forces were better trained, had superior leadership, and had a far more flexible doctrine, Egypt’s army could boast that the majority of its soldiers were combat veterans. In order to validate their position, the cryptologists successfully used a ruse to get the Japanese to reveal their target. the information via one of the above methods. Mail: Inside the U.S., send mail to the following address: Central Intelligence Agency Intelligence is important, beyond doubt. In addition, a forward reconnaissance element would need to be in place to provide eyes and ears to the Marines assigned to the assault. Learn how the CIA is organized into directorates and key offices, responsible for securing our nation. With the two corps from Gumbinnen and Francois’ corps to the south, the German forces swept around the Second Army and on 29 August completed the encirclement that would spell its demise. —Sun Tzu, The Art of War[1], “History repeatedly has demonstrated that inferior forces can win when leaders are armed with accurate intelligence.”, Ever present in military discussions are questions of force composition and force employment in winning battles. History has proven that actionable intelligence can lead less capable forces to victory. The Germans suffered fewer than 20,000 casualties, captured more than 500 guns, and filled dozens of trains with captured equipment for transport to Germany. Please check our site map, search feature, or our site navigation on the left Intelligence officers receive special training to make them more effective, and can choose to work in the field collecting raw data, or in centralized … Internet: Send a message here. While Clark was providing on-site intelligence, planners were aided by imagery and human intelligence. By emphasizing intelligence, MacArthur conducted a masterful offensive and avoided an American Gallipoli. Answering this question is the purpose behind this exciting six-part podcast series on Intelligence. What is the role of intelligence in a world where information is everywhere and the global security environment moves and evolves at breakneck speed? The need of the hour is a Big Data strategy as well as recognition of its crucial importance from the top of the hierarchy down the ranks. [4]Thomas A. Brooks, RADM (USN, Ret. The first three examples illustrate how intelligence can help lead to victory through clandestine intelligence operations designed to provide indications and warning information of impending attacks or operations. [2] Other works, such as John Keegan’s Intelligence in War, argue that blunt force is the primary variable in achieving victory: “Willpower always counts for more than foreknowledge.”[3]. Intelligence at Inchon was not happenstance, like the discovery of Lee’s lost orders before Antietam, but a conscious and necessary task assigned by leadership; before MacArthur could determine how to employ his forces, he first had to know whether he could attack or not and where he could attack if it was possible. Israeli intelligence was outstanding, having pinpointed the location of every Egyptian squadron, revealed the layout of every air base, and mastered every detail of Egyptian Air Force operational procedure…. Dr. Genevieve Lester, the DeSerio Chair of Strategic Intelligence at the U.S. Army War College, is the host for the series and she leads off the series with a discussion of the purpose and present-day challenges facing the intelligence field. [22] In the case of the amphibious assault at Inchon, an attack that led to the collapse of the North Korean army and the taking of some 125,000 prisoners, intelligence gathering and planning allowed US forces to overcome geographic disadvantages and take the enemy by surprise. It brushed the admiral before it clanged to the floor. How effective can doctrine and tactics be in preparing forces to be used? War is a complex interaction of many factors, and in the end, it … 09/29/10. He authorized the movement of a corps from Gumbinnen south via railroad to attack the Second Army’s left flank. In both peacetime and wartime, military intelligence is an important part of the security system for a nation. Military Intelligence - Revolution to First World War. This comprehensive planning bore fruit on 15 September, when the allied amphibious task force launched its initial assault from the sea. In 1967, Israel faced a monumental security task: defense of the nation against several Arab armed forces that, when combined, held an advantages of two to one in manpower, two to one in tanks, seven to one in artillery, three to one in aircraft, and four to one in warships. His ability to win this race was possible only if he received timely, detailed, and believable intelligence indicating when, where, and with what forces McDowell would strike. Force and its employment are significant in driving outcomes in combat. We will work to protect all information you The Importance of Intelligence. Intercepting Russian communications, German cryptologists deduced troop strengths and movement schedules, picked up orders, and, most importantly, messages between the First and Second Armies that showed how poorly the two were coordinating their efforts. General MacArthur, the supreme allied commander in Korea, considered a major counterstroke to catch Choe’s forces in a net. The result was a windfall of intelligence for the Germans. It’s just before 9:30 a.m., and people are gathering in a large operations room at the El Paso Intelligence Center (EPIC) for the daily morning briefing. collection mission, there are many ways to reach us. country’s intelligence apparatus. The importance of open source intelligence to the military becomes real and tangible if you use a software that reads like a person would, automatically extracting the information that is relevant for your analysis. With comparable intelligence on Egypt’s land forces and effectiveness, Yariv believed that Israel could not conceivably lose the war. Nimitz believed the Japanese would strike Oahu; others felt the target was the US West Coast. Midway fit this bill. Office of Public Affairs communication issues, the CIA Recruitment Center does not accept resumes, nor can we return In the two-years before the Six-Day War, Yariv not only set about knowing the whereabouts of every Arab air base, but also having each inspected. While the German Eighth Army was comparable in size to each of the Russian armies, it could not face a combined assault. While winning a series of tactical successes, the North was unable to gain its strategic objective— command of all Korea—and was faced with the proposition of using all its remaining forces against the last allied forces holding the Pusan perimeter. How would Nimitz have handled the Japanese attack on Midway had he not known in advance of the trap? Without specific authorization, the vast majority of Egypt’s air force officers, from air sector commanders all the way down to pilots, were uwilling to take even the most obvious emergency procedures.”[36] Only eight MiGs got into the air to defend their airfields; every one was shot down. “In his absence, the EAF was paralyzed. On 2 June 1942, with a good understanding of the general whereabouts of the Japanese fleet—a result of communications intercepts from the Japanese carriers—a US Navy patrol aircraft located and maintained regular contact with it. 4. [29]Kenneth M. Pollack, Arabs at War: Mili­tary Effectiveness, 1948–1991 (Lincoln: Nebraska University Press, 2002), 59. [19] Theodore F. Cook, Jr., “Our Midway Disaster,” in Cowey, 318–19. The old problems of the validity of the information received remains, now coupled with the huge volume of data that can be received. The Chief of the Indian Army has also focused on the need for collaborations with industry. A preemptive strike against the Arabs had always been a major part of the Israeli concept of operations, but it was their military intelligence, under the command of the bright and aggressive Aharon Yariv, that proved decisive. [42]Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations (JP 2-01), (Washing­ton, DC: Department of Defense, Novem­ber 2003), V-14. ‘Know your enemy’ was not, Yariv told his heads of departments, merely a figure of speech; it had to be taken literally. Nor could Israel count on technological superiority to overcome the odds. Thus, if “[O]nly numbers can annihilate,” as suggested by Lord Nelson, the successful exploitation of intelligence in this case demonstrates that they need not be superior numbers.[10]. [28]Kenneth M. Pollack, “The Influence of Arab Culture on Arab Military Effective­ness,” (PhD Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Political Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1996), 201. While the Union Army was concentrated, Confederate forces were split, with 21,000 stationed at Manassas Junction under Beauregard, and 12,800 under General Joseph E. Johnston near Harper’s Ferry. [27] NDP2, “Support to Planning—The Inchon Landing.”. Egyptian artillery was superior, and their T-55 tanks were more capable than the majority of Israel’s tanks. [10]Vice Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson, quoted in Michael I. Handel, Masters of War: Classical Strategic Thought, Third, Revised and Expanded Edition (London: Frank Cass, 2001), 155. In considering the options, Yamamoto believed that the United States, whose naval order of battle in the Pacific after the Pearl Harbor strike was significantly less than that of Japan, would not risk a major fleet engagement for anything other than defense of a vital target. Fighting raged throughout the day, and Beauregard’s forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Using the Tor browser, a virtual private network, and/or a device not registered to you can reduce some risk. History repeatedly has demonstrated that numerically inferior forces, armed with less capable technologies, can win when leaders are armed with accurate intelligence they believe they can act upon. Please know, CIA does not engage in law enforcement. Such policy makers as generals and presidents take intelligence into account when making their decisions and acting upon them. [4], The battle may be most renowned for the last minute heroics of General “Stonewall” Jackson on Henry House Hill, which led to the rout of the Union army, but the Confederates were able to employ the forces needed to win at Bull Run because they had created, months earlier, an intricate spy network in Washington, DC. [2]Stephen Biddle, Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer­sity Press, 2004). military intelligence and the importance of finding the appropria te structure of the . Or, you can send us a message using the Tor browser at ciadotgov4sjwlzihbbgxnqg3xiyrg7so2r2o3lt5wz5ypk4sxyjstad.onion. But it is only one factor. The 45-mile-long approach from the open ocean to the landing area would be complicated by tides— which caused the water’s depth in the landing area to recede to dangerously low depths—and the proximity of several small islands occupied by North Korean forces. Meanwhile, he and his staff developed a concept of operations that would allow for concentration of force, and surprise, against a most vulnerable enemy point. But the poorly educated and trained Russian cryptologists were unable even to master their simple cipher system and, in the case of the First Army, did not use a communications code. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ODNI: AN INTERVIEW WITH JAMES CLAPPER, CULTIVATING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS ONE STUDENT AT A TIME, START WITH BOOK THREE: FINDING UTILITY IN CLAUSEWITZ’S ON WAR, LEADERSHIP ROLE MODELS IN FICTION REVISITED: A WHITEBOARD. Sheer military power is another, along with logistics, morale, training, leadership, technology, and support from civil society. Intelligence, in military science, information concerning an enemy or an area. [31] But all other diplomatic efforts failed, and the Israelis confronted the decision of (1) preempting their enemies’ first strikes; (2) allowing themselves to be hit first by a numerically stronger adversary; or (3) continuing an unacceptable status quo. Finally, Israel faced a hostile international community; the United States was an ally but eager to avoid any spark that could ignite a conflict with Egypt’s ally, the Soviet Union. The Japanese Navy, which had a fleet of six carriers before the battle, lost four at Midway, and it lost the bulk of its trained pilots and hundreds of aircraft. Beauregard, fearing the worst, sent a plea to Greenhow for intelligence reconfirming the date and planned movement of Union forces. phone calls, e-mails or other forms of communication, from US citizens living outside of the Egypt had mobilized its military and announced combat readiness in the Sinai, followed on the 23rd by a closure of the Straits of Tiran, blockading the Israeli port of Eliat. [26]Carl H. Builder et al., Command Con­cepts: A Theory Derived from the Practice of Command and Control (MR-775-ORS) (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1999), 8. —General H. Norman Schwarzkopf III, U.S. Army[39]. Its OP-20-G Navy Radio Intelligence Section had over the years garnered a number of successes, including breaking many of the Japanese Navy’s codes. Your diverse skills. As a result of these failings, even had Egypt’s military been better trained and led, it was at a significant disadvantage from the outset. Our mission. Battle is always risky and can be swayed one way or another by sheer chance. [5]The Civil War: Spies, Scouts and Raiders (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1985), 25. The views expressed in this podcast are those of the speakers and do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Army War College, the U.S. Army, or the Department of Defense. Amit’s (head of the Mossad) achievement in secret diplomacy was built upon the international intelligence links which the Mossad had worked so hard to foster for years.”[35]. The Importance Of Military Intelligence 1268 Words | 6 Pages. official you have information for CIA. This knowledge emboldened the Germans. Thus, a McDowell move toward Manassas would spark a race in which Johnston would have to rush to Beauregrad’s aid across piedmont terrain and with limited railroad access. [13] Were the Japanese to take Midway, they would threaten not only the Hawaiian Islands, but they could use Midway as a springboard for attacks on the continental United States. professional. “So finely tuned was his intelligence apparatus that he was able to predict an outcome which was to astonish the world when it was all over.”[34], Coupled with military operational intelligence, the Israeli Mossad—its state intelligence agency—had developed relationships with foreign governments and intelligence agencies that provided new and corroborated strategic and tactical intelligence before the war. While diverted from conducting operational intelligence prior to Pearl Harbor, OP-20-G had reestablished its functional capabilities by March 1942 and was reporting daily on hundreds of Japanese naval intercepts. Inchon, however, was not ideal. Our response will occur via a secure method. [9] The first, sent by General Paul von Rennenkampf, commander of the First Army, revealed the distance between the two armies and that Rennenkampf needed at least three days before his army could join the Second Army in attacking the Germans. To me, there are three implications of the importance of intelligence. AN INTERVIEW WITH JAMES CLAPPER. What seemed a victory for the Federals rapidly deteriorated into a disorganized retreat. First, the United States was committed to a defensive war in the Pacific—they had to react to Japanese actions, and, second, since they were committed to defend the Hawaii-Australia line with inferior numbers and weapons, the only real chance for success was to concentrate their forces at the right place at the right time.[14]. As the bulk of the German Eighth Army advanced on the right flank of the Russian’s Second Army and the Russians’ plight became apparent, German cryptologists began intercepting pleas for assistance, as well as orders from General Zhilinski, overall commander of Russian forces, directing the First Army to move northwest, away from Second Army—a clear sign that the Russian leaders did not have a clear understanding of German dispositions or just how precarious Second Army’s situation was. Raised a welt on his chest 30,000 were killed or wounded and 95,000! Result was a importance of military intelligence of intelligence is an important part of the author Korea, a... The way for the coming great battle, a direct attack against Midway would force the US Command had killed... Nothing in the Pacific ( Spring, 1999 ), 144 intercepts strongly suggested major. “ did Israel Want the Six-Day War? ” Azure ( Spring, 1999 ) late... 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