Everything, he says, comes to be from out of its opposite, so that for instance a tall man becomes tall only because he was short before. He soon began to doubt that growth is merely the result of eating and drinking or that the brain is the cause of thought. After an interval of some months or years, an account of the last hours of Socrates is narrated to Echecrates and other interested persons by Phaedo, a beloved disciple of the great teacher. We will possess the light of truth. It is the function of the soul to rule or govern the body rather than to be served by it. This implies that there is a perpetual cycle of life and death, so that when we die we do not stay dead, but come back to life after a perio… CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. He came to the conclusion that the physical sciences could provide no answers to the questions he had in mind. Phaedo is Plato’s literary and philosophical monument to the death, and to the life, of his master, Socrates. Along with a group of friends—including Crito, Cebes, and Simmias —he spends time in Socrates’s cell. Thought is clearest, then, when the influence of the body is felt least or when there is the greatest possible separation between body and soul (“soul” in this context includes “mind”). In response to this skeptical attitude on the part of Cebes, Socrates makes some reference to the Heraclitean doctrine of the strife of opposites. Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: The physical sciences are useful as a means of recording the order in which movements observed by the senses take place, but they tell us nothing about the purpose or meaning of life, nor do they reveal what is right or wrong in the moral sense in which those terms are used. What happens to the soul at the time of death? . He talked to them and gave them a few instructions in the presence of Crito, after which he dismissed them and returned to the members of the group. Crito answered that it would be paid. According to this conception, the world is in a constant state of flux. 1066 Words null Page. The effectiveness of the argument is strengthened when it is combined with the second part, which has to do with the doctrine of reminiscence. Hence, an imitation of God becomes a right and reasonable standard of conduct for human beings. Furthermore, we must recognize that if all things that partake of life were to die and after they were dead remained in the form of death and did not come to life again, all would at last die and nothing would be alive. Socrates explains that the philosopher seeks and enjoys the pleasures of the body—those of food, drink, sex, and adornment—only to the extent that they are necessary to life and beyond this despises them. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Phaedo begins his account of Socrates ’s final hours. Epiphenomenalism is the doctrine that souls or spiritual substances are the product of matter; with the destruction of the matter that produced them, they will cease to exist. Are there both good and bad souls, and if so, what constitutes the difference between them? He informs them that if they will state their questions, he will do his best to answer them. Yes, he said. For wars are occasioned by the love of money, and money has to be acquired for the sake and in the service of the body; and in consequence of all these things the time which ought to be given to philosophy is lost." It must have as little as possible to do with the body as it aspires to wisdom and a knowledge of ultimate reality. His departure from this life is close at hand, and his gift of prophecy should be at its best. Removing #book# He explains to his fellows while he is in jail awaiting his execution that, “since I had had it with this looking into beings, it seemed to me I had to be on my guard so as not to suffer the very thing those people do who behold and look … Dao Le Prof. Mark Cronin HU 102 - HD April 2, 2012 The Immortality of the Soul in Plato’s Phaedo Among Plato’s dialogues, which serve to honor the realm of philosophy in general and Socrates’s life in particular, the Phaedo dramatically and poignantly portrays … The fact that his wife, Xanthippe, and their infant son were excluded from the company of visitors who had arrived at the prison on the last day of his life has sometimes been regarded as evidence of harshness in his attitude toward them. After having mentioned the names of several of those who were present at the time of Socrates' death, Phaedo states that he will endeavor to repeat the entire conversation as he remembers the way in which it took place. Socrates, Apollodorus, Simmias, Cebes, Crito and an Attendant of the Prison. To make his position clear, he will compare the relationship between soul and body to that of a weaver and the coat he has been wearing. The Phaedo is one of Plato's dialogs in which the dramatic form of art achieved its highest level of development. If the soul existed before birth and in coming to life and being born can be born only from death and dying, it follows that it must continue to exist since it has to be born again. Particular emphasis is given to the deification, or divine character, of the soul in contrast to the human and mortal nature of the body. She was weeping because this was the last time she could converse with her husband. Socrates begins, as usual, the story by saying that suicide is wrong, because a true philosopher must wait for death and not cause it voluntarily. As a result of his many investigations, he had become convinced that it is impossible to learn anything about the spiritual life of man from a study of the material aspects of his nature. Since most of these people were probably still living when the Phaedo was published, any errors in the account would have been noted and brought to light. From this analysis of the knowing process, it follows that souls must have existed prior to one's birth, for otherwise the ideas could not have been carried from one existence to another. Simmias then asks for a further explanation of what this doctrine about recollection really means. That is why he puts his trust in thinking rather than in what is experienced through the senses, for in thinking the soul is independent of the body in a way that is not true of the senses. The thesis of the immortality of the … It is dependent on the material instrument from which it is produced and will perish with the destruction of that instrument. It was a part of the teachings of the Orphic mystery cult, according to which a soul that is born into this world has come back from another world and will eventually return to it. Its middle-period classification puts it after “early” dialo… It is true that day follows night just as night follows day, but this does not mean that either one is made "out of" the other or that one is changed into the other. Now, a true philosopher is one who ought not to place the highest value on the pleasures of the body, such as eating and drinking or the acquisition of costly raiment. This question must be answered not merely with reference to time but to eternity as well. Key Figures. Save Download. What conclusion can be made about the spiritual nature of the human being or the soul in Plato's "Phaedo". On his way home after having witnessed Socrates ’s execution in an Athenian prison, Phaedo encounters a fellow philosopher, Echecrates, who asks… read analysis of Phaedo Are you sure you want to remove #bookConfirmation# He also described something of his own feelings as he witnessed the death of his very dear friend. The chief topic of conversation had been Socrates' conception of the soul. Enjoy this free preview Unlock all 24 pages of this Study Guide by subscribing today. Title In Plato’s Phaedo, Plato works to prove the immortality of the soul by creating a dialogue that takes place after Socrates is sentenced to execution, moments before he is put to death. He is convinced, however, that after the soul is separated from the body, it will go to other gods and will be associated with the souls of departed people who are even better than those now living on the earth. Analysis Of Plato's Phaedo 1918 Words | 8 Pages. Furthermore, it can be said universally that whatever comes to be does so out of its opposite. Cold is the opposite of heat, but it is not true that either one is changed into or actually becomes the other. He covers the important question of whether the “soul” continues after death whilst using various arguments to reiterate his theory. True existence, if it is revealed at all, must come through the processes of thought, and thought functions at its best when the mind is no longer troubled by sounds or sights or pains or pleasures. Simmias compares the soul to the harmony that is produced by a lyre in the hands of a musician. A number of friends gather Socrates in his cell, including his old friend Crito and two Pythagorean philosophers, Simmias and Cebes. The Phaedo is a Platonic dialogue that relates the conversation between Socrates and his friends on the day of his execution. There were many questions that they would like to have answered, including: What assurance or proof do we have that souls actually exist? They are not subject to change, and neither can they be perceived by the senses. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Phaedo and what it means. Analysis of Plato’s Dialogue: Meno and Phaedo Introduction Plato wrote almost thirty dialogue, and Socrates is the major character in most of them. It might be that this knowledge had been gained by the soul during its existence in some prior embodiment. As the group entered the prison on the morning of Socrates last day, they observed that he had just been released from chains. Objects that are not compounded but are simple in their nature always remain what they are. He believes, too, that the doctrine of reminiscence offers further proof of the thesis that Socrates has been ex-pounding. 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